BAUSCH HEALTH COMPAN

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Bausch Health : Title 2020 Annual Report

03/14/2021 | 06:00pm

OURVISION

To be Your Trusted Health Care Partner

CORE VALUES

• Accountability

• Courage

• Teamwork

• Agility

• Integrity

• Results Orientation

OURMISSION

Improving People's Lives With Our Health Care Products

COMPANY OVERVIEW

People

We are a global company whose mission is to improve people's lives with our health care products. We develop, manufacture and market a range of branded, generic and branded generic pharmaceuticals, medical devices (contact lenses, intraocular lenses, ophthalmic surgical equipment and aesthetics devices) and over-the-counter (OTC) products, primarily in the therapeutic areas of eye health, gastroenterology and dermatology. We are delivering on our commitments as we build an innovative company dedicated to advancing global health.

Innovation

More information can be found at www.bauschhealth.com.

Efficiency

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This annual report contains forward-looking information and statements, within the meaning of applicable securities laws (collectively, "forward-looking statements"), including, but not limited to, statements regarding the Company's future prospects and performance, the Company's plan to spin off its eye health business from the remainder of Bausch Health and the timing of the completion of the internal work related thereto, the anticipated impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company and the Company's business recovery therefrom, anticipated advances in our development programs and pipeline products and other strategic alternatives being developed by the Company to drive and deliver shareholder value. Forward-looking statements may generally be identified by the use of the words "anticipates," "expects," "intends," "plans," "should," "could," "would," "may," "will," "believes," "estimates," "potential," "target," or "continue" and variations or similar expressions, and phrases or statements that certain actions, events or results may, could, should or will be achieved, received or taken, or will occur or result, and similar such expressions also identify forward-looking information. These forward-looking statements, including the Company's future performance and growth, are based upon the current expectations and beliefs of management and are provided for the purpose of providing additional information about such expectations and beliefs, and readers are cautioned that these statements may not be appropriate for other purposes. These forward-looking statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the risks and uncertainties discussed in the Company's most recent annual or quarterly report and detailed from time to time in the Company's other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Canadian Securities Administrators, which risks and uncertainties are incorporated herein by reference. In addition, certain material factors and assumptions have been applied in making these forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, the assumption that the risks and uncertainties outlined above will not cause actual results or events to differ materially from those described in these forward-looking statements, and additional information regarding certain of these material factors and assumptions may also be found in the Company's filings described above. The Company believes that the material factors and assumptions reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable in the circumstances, but readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any of these forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date hereof. Bausch Health undertakes no obligation to update any of these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this annual report or to reflect actual outcomes, unless required by law.

OUR MISSION TO

IMPROVE PEOPLE'S LIVES

HELPING IN THE WORLDWIDE FIGHT AGAINST COVID-19

From the earliest days of the COVID-19 pandemic, Bausch Health began taking up initiatives aimed at contributing to the global fight against the virus, including actively donating medicines and health care products while also pursuing research to determine if products in our existing portfolio would offer further treatment options.

Among several ongoing research efforts to determine if products throughout our portfolio may offer valuable treatment options, in vitro data shows two benzalkonium chloride preserved eye drops, LUMIFY® and BESIVANCE®, indicate complete inactivation of COVID-19. Also, clinical trials in Canada are evaluating an investigational use of VIRAZOLE® to help treat hospitalized adult patients with respiratory distress due to COVID-19.

In Wuhan, China, health care providers reported that they were hindered by fogging eyeglasses while wearing protective gear, such as goggles, face masks and containment suits. The Company responded by donating Biotrue® ONEday daily disposable contact lenses to these health care providers.

At our manufacturing sites located in Jinan, China, and Laval, Canada, available production lines were converted to produce hand sanitizer for donation to health care providers, first responders and volunteers.

"In line with our mission of improving people's lives with our health care products, we will continue to seek opportunities to offer sup-port and aid to the institutions, patients and health care providers battling this pandemic," said Joseph C. Papa, Bausch Health CEO.

Bausch + Lomb employees in China shipped disposable contact lenses to frontline pandemic responders.

1

FELLOW SHAREHOLDERS,

Bausch Health is a company dedicated to innovation, advancing global health and improving people's lives with our health care products. In a year with unprecedented business disruption due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we finished the year strong and we believe that momentum will carry over into 2021.

This past year was one we will never forget. The global pandemic impacted our businesses around the world, while social unrest across the United States weighed on many of our colleagues, communities and customers. It was a trying and anxious year for all.

Like most other companies, Bausch Health faced significant challenges due to mandated social restrictions, market shutdowns and quarantine actions around the world. Our team's determination, adaptability and resourcefulness helped mitigate much of the impact to our Company. The resilience of our more than 22,000 colleagues across the globe was, for me, a bright spot in a very challenging year.

As the pandemic began, our top priorities were to make sure that our employees were safe and that the necessary measures were taken to protect the integrity of our supply chains. Success against those two objectives enabled us to continue to fulfill our mission of improving people's lives with our health care products.

We also took aggressive steps to conserve cash and to protect, as best we could, our profitability and cash flow as we worked our way through the year. Those efforts helped us deliver more than $1.1 billion in cash generated from operations in 2020 and enabled us to repay approximately $900 million in debt in 2020 despite the impacts of the pandemic. I'm proud of our responses to operating in a COVID-19 world, and the results.

We prepared for the long-term effects of the pandemic, and as 2020 progressed, our results showed that our business recovery is well underway. While adapting to the "new normal," we didn't skip a beat, launching new products, gaining market share with many of our key promoted brands and advancing our new product development pipeline. We believe our global, diversified and durable business model leaves us well-positioned to return to growth as the impacts of the pandemic fade.

Bausch Health: Global, Diverse, Durable

While last year was often challenging from an operational perspective, we achieved several important milestones including important new product launches, advancements in our pipeline and the execution of several business develop-ment agreements to acquire and develop new products:

Launches INFUSE® Silicone Hydrogel (SiHy) daily disposable contact lenses launched in the U.S.

 Global expansion with the launch of our Bausch + Lomb

ULTRA® ONE Day silicone hydrogel (SiHy) daily disposable contact lenses in Canada, Hong Kong and Australia  ARAZLO® (tazarotene) Lotion, 0.045%, the first tazarotene acne treatment available in lotion formulation, launched in the U.S.

Pipeline advancements

  • U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for Bausch + Lomb Alaway® Preservative Free (Ketotifen Fumarate) Ophthalmic Solution, 0.035%, antihistamine eye drops

  • The FDA granted Orphan Drug Designation to Rifaximin for treatment of sickle cell anemia

  • Favorable topline results from a study evaluating an investigative formulation of Rifaximin SSD IR to treat overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE)

Key acquisitions and agreements  Completed several deals to expand our vision care portfolio to address areas of unmet need:

Myopia: Acquired an exclusive license in the U.S. and Canada from

Eyenovia for the development and commercialization of an investigational microdose formulation of atropine ophthal-mic solution, which is being investigated for the reduction of pediatric myopia progression in children ages 3-12  Acquired an exclusive global license for a myopia-control contact lens design developed by BHVI

Dry Eye: In late 2019, we licensed Novaliq's NOV03 investigational treatment for dry eye disease associated with meibomian gland dysfunction

Age-Related Macular Degeneration:  Acquired an option to purchase all ophthalmology assets of Allegro Ophthalmics, LLC, including global rights for risuteganib (Luminate®)1, an investigational treatment expected to help reverse vision loss due to dry AMD  Licensed exclusive rights from STADA and Xbrane to a biosimilar candidate for Lucentis (ranibizumab) in the U.S. and Canada

1 Provisional name. Luminate® is a registered trademark of Allegro Ophthalmics.

GLOBAL

DIVERSE

DURABLE

Health, Safety, Wellness, Environment and Diversity & Inclusion Conducting business responsibly is essential to achieving our core business goals. Our global Environment, Health, Safety & Sustainability organization provides the leadership and infrastructure necessary to help Bausch Health achieve a more sustainable and regenerative state. We have a com-prehensive set of environmental policies that provide the foundation to our sustainability commitments, focusing on providing a safe and healthy workplace for all our employees, committing to sustainable purchasing and packaging, reducing water utilization, minimizing the generation of waste, tracking energy use and reducing carbon emissions.

On an ongoing basis, we measure how well we are fostering the health and safety of our employees through a Days Away Rate (DAR), which captures globally the number of days that our employees are away from work due to illness or injury. In 2020, we achieved an annual DAR of 11, surpassing our annual goal of 13 and exceeding the industry standard of 24. Recognizing that physical, emotional and financial well-being are significant contributors to our employees' success at work and home, especially in 2020, we continue to support them in all aspects of their everyday life by centering programs and activities around these three pillars of well-being and offer a range of resources.

We are also dedicated to fostering an inclusive work envi-ronment where everyone feels welcomed, supported and valued for their talents and contributions. Our Diversity & Inclusion strategy centers on connecting employees to our Company, each other and our communities to cultivate a sense of trust, respect and belonging for all. Furthermore, we continue to expand our Employee Resource Groups, pro-viding opportunities for professional growth, development and informal networking.

Our Bausch Health Corporate Social Responsibility Report, published in September 2020, offers many additional details on these important aspects of our business.

A Clear Focus on our Future

Turning to 2021, Bausch Health looks to build on the momen-tum established over the second half of 2020, regain our pre-COVID levels of revenue, profitability and cash flow and drive the growth of our attractive businesses from that point forward. In 2021, our focus will be in three areas:

 Executing our business recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic  Unleashing growth drivers and key catalysts  Accelerating strategic alternatives to drive shareholder value

Driving Shareholder Value

We believe that we can unlock and deliver significant value to our shareholders. Last August, we announced our intention to spin off Bausch + Lomb into an independent publicly traded entity, a move that would create two separate companies:  A fully integrated, pure-play eye health company built on the iconic Bausch + Lomb brand, with its long history of innovation; and  A diversified pharmaceutical company with leading positions in gastroenterology, aesthetics/dermatology, neurology and international pharmaceuticals.

We made excellent progress preparing for the spin-off and, by the end of the third quarter of 2021, we expect to have completed all the internal work necessary to stand up Bausch + Lomb as a fully operational company. That said, the spin-off is not the only track we are pursuing. Our Board of Direc-tors and management team are simultaneously working hard, and with measured urgency, to develop a range of other alternatives into actionable options to deliver value to shareholders.

The year 2020 was a time of disruption, yet each of our employees remained focused, determined and committed to meeting our mission of improving people's lives. Everyone worked hard to ensure we had ample supply of our needed health care products for patients and consumers, while keeping a sharp eye on operating expenses. All of our employees are to be commended for a job done exceed-ingly well in an often-difficult environment. We are proud that every day, more than 150 million people around the world use a Bausch Health product.

Thank you also to our shareholders, who believe in our Company, our strategy and our ability to execute. I am grateful for your continued confidence and support.

Sincerely,

Joseph C. Papa

Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer

Our Approach to

CORPORATE SOCIAL

RESPONSIBILITY

About Bausch Foundation

The Bausch Foundation was established in 2017 to improve the lives of people around the world by providing access to safe, effective medicines and by financially supporting health care education and causes. Since its inception, the Bausch Foundation has contributed millions of dollars' worth of financial and product donations to global charitable health organizations, including:

To learn more about the Bausch Foundation, visit https://www.bauschhealth.com/Portals/25/PDF/Bausch-Foundation-Report-2020.pdf

Our Approach to Corporate Social Responsibility

As a global company dedicated to improving people's lives with ourhealth care products, we take our commitment to corporate social responsibility (CSR) seriously. We manufacture and market a broad range of products directly or indirectly in more than 100 countries. Additionally, our more than 22,000 employees live and work around the world. This means Bausch Health has a major opportunity-and an even greater responsibility-to make a difference.

ADVANCE GLOBAL HEALTH

AND PATIENT CARE

Bausch Health's Corporate Social Responsibility Report can be found online at https://www.bauschhealth.com/Portals/25/PDF/ BauschHealthCSRReport2020.pdf. It provides an introduction to our foundational work in each of these areas, featuring highlights of success stories from our operations around the globe. The report also offers data on several key performance indicators.

BAUSCH HEALTH COMPANIES INC.

|

2020 FORM 10-K

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549 _____________________________

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2020

OR TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ____________ to ____________

Commission File Number: 001-14956

Bausch Health Companies Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

British Columbia , Canada

98-0448205

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

2150 St. Elzéar Blvd. West, Laval, Québec, Canada H7L 4A8

(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)

Registrant's telephone number, including area code (514) 744-6792

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Shares, No Par Value

BHC

New York Stock Exchange ,Toronto Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act:

None (Title of class)

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý No o

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No ý

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ý No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

x

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No

The aggregate market value of the common shares held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter was $5,664,997,951 based on the last reported sale price on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2020.

The number of outstanding shares of the registrant's common stock as of February 18, 2021 was 355,619,826.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Part III incorporates certain information by reference from the registrant's proxy statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders. Such proxy statement will be filed no later than 120 days after the close of the registrant's fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

GENERAL INFORMATION

Page

PART I

Item 1.

1

Item 1A.

18

Item 1B.

45

Item 2.

45

Item 3.

46

Item 4.

46

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity

47

Securities

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

51

Item 7.

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

52

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

103

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

103

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

103

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

103

Item 9B.

Other Information

103

Item 10.

104

Item 11.

104

Item 12.

104

Item 13.

104

Item 14.

104

105

105

110

Business

Risk Factors

Unresolved Staff Comments Properties

Legal Proceedings Mine Safety Disclosures

PART III

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance Executive Compensation

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

PART IV

Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

Item 16. Form 10-K Summary

SIGNATURES

i

Basis of Presentation

General

Except where the context otherwise requires, all references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K ("Form 10-K") to the "Company", "we", "us", "our" or similar words or phrases are to Bausch Health Companies Inc. and its subsidiaries, taken together. In this Form 10-K, references to "$" or "USD" are to United States dollars, references to "€" are to Euros, and references to "CAD" are to Canadian dollars. Unless otherwise indicated, the statistical and financial data contained in this Form 10-K are presented as of December 31, 2020.

Trademarks

The following words are some of the trademarks in our Company's trademark portfolio and are the subject of either registration, or application for registration, in one or more of Canada, the United States of America (the "U.S.") or certain other jurisdictions: AERGEL®, AKREOS®, ALAWAY®, ALREX®, ALTRENO®, AMMONUL®, APLENZIN®, APRISO®, AQUALOX®, ARAZLO®, ARESTIN®, ARTELAC®, ATIVAN®, B & L®, B + L®, BAUSCH & LOMB®, BAUSCH + LOMB®, BAUSCH + LOMB ULTRA®, BAUSCH HEALTH®, BAUSCH HEALTH COMPANIES®, BEDOYECTA®, BENZACLIN®, BEPREVE®, BESIVANCE®, BIOTRUE®, BISOCARD®, BOSTON®, BRYHALI®, BUPAP®, CARAC®, CARDIZEM®, CLEAR + BRILLIANT®, CLINDAGEL®, COLD FX®. COMFORTMOIST®, CRYSTALENS®, CUPRIMINE®, DIASTAT®, DUOBRII®, EDECRIN®, ENVISTA®, ESPAVEN®, FRAXEL®, GLUMETZA®, ISTALOL®, IVEXTERM®, JUBLIA®, LIBRAX®, LOTEMAX®, LUMIFY®, LUXGOOD, LUXSMART, LUZU®, MEDICIS®, MEPHYTON®, MIGRANAL®, MOISTURESEAL®, NEUTRASAL®, NORITATE®, OCUVITE®, ONEXTON®, OPTICALIGN®, ORTHO DERMATOLOGICS®, PRESERVISION®, PROLENSA®, PUREVISION®, RELISTOR®, RENU®, RENU MULTIPLUS®, RETIN-A®, RETIN-A MICRO®, SALIX®, SCLERALFIL®, SECONAL SODIUM®, SHOWER TO SHOWER®, SILIQ®, SILSOFT®, SOFLENS®, SOLODYN®, SOLTA MEDICAL®, STELLARIS®, STELLARIS ELITE®, SYNERGETICS®, SYPRINE®, TARGRETIN®, THERMAGE®, THERMAGE FLX®, THROMBO ASS®, TRULANCE®, TRULIGN®, UCERIS®, VALEANT®, VASERLIPO®, VICTUS®, VIRAZOLE®, VITESSE®, VYZULTA®, XENAZINE®, ZEGERID®, ZIANA®, and ZYLET®.

In addition to the trademarks previously noted, we have filed trademark applications and/or obtained trademark registrations for many of our other trademarks in the U.S., Canada and in other jurisdictions and have implemented, on an ongoing basis, a trademark protection program for new trademarks.

WELLBUTRIN®, WELLBUTRIN XL® and ZOVIRAX® are trademarks of GlaxoSmithKline LLC and are used by us under license. ELIDEL® and XERESE® are registered trademarks of Meda Pharma SARL and are used by us under license. EMERADE® is a registered trademark of Medeca Pharma AB and is used by us under license. ISUPREL® and NITROPRESS® are registered trademarks of Hospira, Inc. and are used by us under license. XIFAXAN® is a registered trademark of Alfasigma S.p.A. and is used by us under license. PEPCID® is a brand of Johnson & Johnson and is used by us under license. MOVIPREP® is a registered trademark of Velinor AG and is used by us under license. PLENVU® is a registered trademark of Velinor AG and is used by us under license. LOCOID® is a registered trademark of Leo Pharma A/S and is used by us under license. TANGIBLE® and HYDRA-PEG® are registered trademarks of Tangible Science, LLC and are used by us under license. LUMINATE® is a registered trademark of Allegro Ophthalmics, LLC and we have entered into an agreement for an option to acquire all ophthalmology assets of Allegro Ophthalmics, LLC. XIPERE is a trademark of Clearside Biomedical, Inc. and is used by us under license. CONTRAVE® and MYSIMBA® are used by us under license.

Forward-Looking Statements

Caution regarding forward-looking information and statements and "Safe-Harbor" statements under the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and applicable Canadian securities laws:

To the extent any statements made in this Form 10-K contain information that is not historical, these statements are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and may be forward-looking information within the meaning defined under applicable Canadian securities laws (collectively, "forward-looking statements").

These forward-looking statements relate to, among other things: our business strategy, business plans and prospects and forecasts and changes thereto; product pipeline, prospective products and product approvals, product development and future performance and results of current and anticipated products; anticipated revenues for our products; anticipated growth in our Ortho Dermatologics business; expected research and development ("R&D") and marketing spend; our expected primary cash and working capital requirements for 2021 and beyond; our plans for continued improvement in operational efficiency and the anticipated impact of such plans; our liquidity and our ability to satisfy our debt maturities as they become due; our ability to reduce debt levels; our ability to meet the financial and other covenants contained in our Fourth Amended and Restated Creditand Guaranty Agreement (the "Restated Credit Agreement") and senior notes indentures; the impact of our distribution, fulfillment and other third-party arrangements; proposed pricing actions; exposure to foreign currency exchange rate changes and interest rate changes; the outcome of contingencies, such as litigation, subpoenas, investigations, reviews, audits and regulatory proceedings; the anticipated impact of the adoption of new accounting standards; general market conditions; our expectations regarding our financial performance, including revenues, expenses, gross margins and income taxes; our impairment assessments, including the assumptions used therein and the results thereof; the anticipated impact of the evolving COVID-19 pandemic and related responses from governments and private sector participants on the Company, its supply chain, third-party suppliers, project development timelines, costs, revenue, margins, liquidity and financial condition, the anticipated timing, speed and magnitude of recovery from these COVID-19 pandemic related impacts and the Company's planned actions and responses to this pandemic; and the Company's plan to separate its eye-health business, including the structure and timing of completing such separation transaction.

Forward-looking statements can generally be identified by the use of words such as "believe", "anticipate", "expect", "intend", "estimate", "plan", "continue", "will", "may", "could", "would", "should", "target", "potential", "opportunity", "designed", "create", "predict", "project", "forecast", "seek", "strive", "ongoing" or "increase" and variations or other similar expressions. In addition, any statements that refer to expectations, intentions, projections or other characterizations of future events or circumstances are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements may not be appropriate for other purposes. Although we have previously indicated certain of these statements set out herein, all of the statements in this Form 10-K that contain forward-looking statements are qualified by these cautionary statements. These statements are based upon the current expectations and beliefs of management. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are reasonable, such statements involve risks and uncertainties, and undue reliance should not be placed on such statements. Certain material factors or assumptions are applied in making such forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, factors and assumptions regarding the items previously outlined, those factors, risks and uncertainties outlined below and the assumption that none of these factors, risks and uncertainties will cause actual results or events to differ materially from those described in such forward-looking statements. Actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied in such statements. Important factors, risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from these expectations include, among other things, the following:

  • • the risks and uncertainties caused by or relating to the evolving COVID-19 pandemic, the fear of that pandemic, the availability and effectiveness of vaccines for COVID-19, the rapidly evolving reaction of governments, private sector participants and the public to that pandemic, and the potential effects and economic impact of the pandemic and the reaction to it, the severity, duration and future impact of which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, and which may have a significant adverse impact on the Company, including but not limited to its supply chain, third-party suppliers, project development timelines, employee base, liquidity, stock price, financial condition and costs (which may increase) and revenue and margins (both of which may decrease);

  • • with respect to the proposed separation of the Company's eye-health business, the risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the expected benefits and costs of the separation transaction, the expected timing of completion of the separation transaction and its terms, the Company's ability to complete the separation transaction considering the various conditions to the completion of the separation transaction (some of which are outside the Company's control, including conditions related to regulatory matters and a possible shareholder vote, if applicable), that market or other conditions are no longer favorable to completing the transaction, that any shareholder, stock exchange, regulatory or other approval (if required) is not obtained on the terms or timelines anticipated or at all, business disruption during the pendency of or following the separation transaction, diversion of management time on separation transaction-related issues, retention of existing management team members, the reaction of customers and other parties to the separation transaction, the qualification of the separation transaction as a tax-free transaction for Canadian and/or U.S. federal income tax purposes (including whether or not an advance ruling from either or both of the Canada Revenue Agency and the Internal Revenue Service will be sought or obtained), potential dyssynergy costs resulting from the separation transaction, the impact of the separation transaction on relationships with customers, suppliers, employees and other business counterparties, general economic conditions, conditions in the markets the Company is engaged in, behavior of customers, suppliers and competitors, technological developments, as well as legal and regulatory rules affecting the Company's business;

  • • the expense, timing and outcome of legal and governmental proceedings, investigations and information requests relating to, among other matters, our past distribution, marketing, pricing, disclosure and accounting practices (including with respect to our former relationship with Philidor Rx Services, LLC ("Philidor")), including a number of pending non-class securities litigations (including certain pending opt-out actions in the U.S. related to the previously settled securities class action (which remains subject to an objector's appeal of the Court's final approval order) and certain opt-out actions in Canada relating to the recently settled class action in Canada) and purported class actions

under the federal RICO statute and other claims, investigations or proceedings that may be initiated or that may be asserted;

  • potential additional litigation and regulatory investigations (and any costs, expenses, use of resources, diversion of management time and efforts, liability and damages that may result therefrom), negative publicity and reputational harm on our Company, products and business that may result from the past and ongoing public scrutiny of our past distribution, marketing, pricing, disclosure and accounting practices and from our former relationship with Philidor;

  • the past and ongoing scrutiny of our legacy business practices, including with respect to pricing, and any pricing controls or price adjustments that may be sought or imposed on our products as a result thereof;

  • pricing decisions that we have implemented, or may in the future elect to implement, such as the Patient Access and Pricing Committee's commitment that the average annual price increase for our branded prescription pharmaceutical products will be set at no greater than single digits, or any future pricing actions we may take following review by our Patient Access and Pricing Committee (which is responsible for the pricing of our drugs);

  • legislative or policy efforts, including those that may be introduced and passed by the U.S. Congress, designed to reduce patient out-of-pocket costs for medicines, which could result in new mandatory rebates and discounts or other pricing restrictions, controls or regulations (including mandatory price reductions);

  • • ongoing oversight and review of our products and facilities by regulatory and governmental agencies, including periodic audits by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the "FDA") and equivalent agencies outside of the U.S. and the results thereof;

  • • actions by the FDA or other regulatory authorities with respect to our products or facilities;

  • our substantial debt (and potential additional future indebtedness) and current and future debt service obligations, our ability to reduce our outstanding debt levels and the resulting impact on our financial condition, cash flows and results of operations;

  • our ability to meet the financial and other covenants contained in our Restated Credit Agreement, senior notes indentures, 2023 Revolving Credit Facility (as defined below) and other current or future debt agreements and the limitations, restrictions and prohibitions such covenants impose or may impose on the way we conduct our business, including prohibitions on incurring additional debt if certain financial covenants are not met, limitations on the amount of additional obligations we are able to incur pursuant to other covenants, our ability to draw under our 2023 Revolving Credit Facility and restrictions on our ability to make certain investments and other restricted payments;

  • any default under the terms of our senior notes indentures or Restated Credit Agreement and our ability, if any, to cure or obtain waivers of such default;

  • any downgrade by rating agencies in our credit ratings, which may impact, among other things, our ability to raise debt and the cost of capital for additional debt issuances;

  • any reductions in, or changes in the assumptions used in, our forecasts for fiscal year 2021 or beyond, including as a result of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and operations, which could lead to, among other things: (i) a failure to meet the financial and/or other covenants contained in our Restated Credit Agreement and/or senior notes indentures and/or (ii) impairment in the goodwill associated with certain of our reporting units or impairment charges related to certain of our products or other intangible assets, which impairments could be material;

  • changes in the assumptions used in connection with our impairment analyses or assessments, which would lead to a change in such impairment analyses and assessments and which could result in an impairment in the goodwill associated with any of our reporting units or impairment charges related to certain of our products or other intangible assets;

  • • the uncertainties associated with the acquisition and launch of new products, including, but not limited to, our ability to provide the time, resources, expertise and funds required for the commercial launch of new products, the acceptance and demand for new pharmaceutical products, and the impact of competitive products and pricing, which could lead to material impairment charges;

  • • our ability or inability to extend the profitable life of our products, including through line extensions and other life-cycle programs;

  • • our ability to retain, motivate and recruit executives and other key employees;

iv

  • our ability to implement effective succession planning for our executives and key employees;

  • • factors impacting our ability to achieve anticipated growth in our Ortho Dermatologics business, including the success of recently launched products (such as Arazlo®), expected geographic expansion in our Solta business (including with respect to Next Generation Thermage FLX®), the ability to successfully implement and operate our cash-pay prescription program for certain of our Ortho Dermatologics branded products, and the ability of such program to achieve the anticipated goals respecting patient access and fulfillment, the approval of pending and pipeline products (and the timing of such approvals), changes in estimates on market potential for dermatology products and continued investment in and success of our sales force;

  • • factors impacting our ability to achieve anticipated revenues for our products, including changes in anticipated marketing spend on such products and launch of competing products;

  • the challenges and difficulties associated with managing a large complex business, which has, in the past, grown rapidly;

  • our ability to compete against companies that are larger and have greater financial, technical and human resources than we do, as well as other competitive factors, such as technological advances achieved, patents obtained and new products introduced by our competitors;

  • our ability to effectively operate and grow our businesses in light of the challenges that the Company has faced and market conditions, including with respect to its substantial debt, pending investigations and legal proceedings, scrutiny of our past pricing and other practices, limitations on the way we conduct business imposed by the covenants contained in our Restated Credit Agreement, senior notes indentures and the agreements governing our other indebtedness, and the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic;

  • the extent to which our products are reimbursed by government authorities, pharmacy benefit managers ("PBMs") and other third-party payors; the impact our distribution, pricing and other practices may have on the decisions of such government authorities, PBMs and other third-party payors to reimburse our products; and the impact of obtaining or maintaining such reimbursement on the price and sales of our products;

  • the inclusion of our products on formularies or our ability to achieve favorable formulary status, as well as the impact on the price and sales of our products in connection therewith;

  • • the consolidation of wholesalers, retail drug chains and other customer groups and the impact of such industry consolidation on our business;

  • • our eligibility for benefits under tax treaties and the continued availability of low effective tax rates for the business profits of certain of our subsidiaries;

  • the actions of our third-party partners or service providers of research, development, manufacturing, marketing, distribution or other services, including their compliance with applicable laws and contracts, which actions may be beyond our control or influence, and the impact of such actions on our Company, including the impact to the Company of our former relationship with Philidor and any alleged legal or contractual non-compliance by Philidor;

  • the risks associated with the international scope of our operations, including our presence in emerging markets and the challenges we face when entering and operating in new and different geographic markets (including the challenges created by new and different regulatory regimes in such countries and the need to comply with applicable anti-bribery and economic sanctions laws and regulations);

  • adverse global economic conditions and credit markets and foreign currency exchange uncertainty and volatility in certain of the countries in which we do business;

  • • the impact of the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement ("USMCA") and any potential changes to other trade agreements;

  • • the final outcome and impact of Brexit negotiations;

  • • the trade conflict between the United States and China;

  • • our ability to obtain, maintain and license sufficient intellectual property rights over our products and enforce and defend against challenges to such intellectual property (such as in connection with the filing by Norwich Pharmaceuticals Inc. ("Norwich") of its Abbreviated New Drug Application ("ANDA") for Xifaxan® (rifaximin) 550 mg tablets and the Company's related lawsuit filed against Norwich in connection therewith);

  • the introduction of generic, biosimilar or other competitors of our branded products and other products, including the introduction of products that compete against our products that do not have patent or data exclusivity rights;

  • our ability to identify, finance, acquire, close and integrate acquisition targets successfully and on a timely basis and the difficulties, challenges, time and resources associated with the integration of acquired companies, businesses and products;

  • • any divestitures of our assets or businesses and our ability to successfully complete any such divestitures on commercially reasonable terms and on a timely basis, or at all, and the impact of any such divestitures on our Company, including the reduction in the size or scope of our business or market share, loss of revenue, any loss on sale, including any resultant impairments of goodwill or other assets, or any adverse tax consequences suffered as a result of any such divestitures;

  • the expense, timing and outcome of pending or future legal and governmental proceedings, arbitrations, investigations, subpoenas, tax and other regulatory audits, examinations, reviews and regulatory proceedings against us or relating to us and settlements thereof;

  • • our ability to negotiate the terms of or obtain court approval for the settlement of certain legal and regulatory proceedings;

  • our ability to obtain components, raw materials or finished products supplied by third parties (some of which may be single-sourced) and other manufacturing and related supply difficulties, interruptions and delays;

  • the disruption of delivery of our products and the routine flow of manufactured goods;

  • economic factors over which the Company has no control, including changes in inflation, interest rates, foreign currency rates, and the potential effect of such factors on revenues, expenses and resulting margins;

  • interest rate risks associated with our floating rate debt borrowings;

  • • our ability to effectively distribute our products and the effectiveness and success of our distribution arrangements, including the impact of our arrangements with Walgreen Co. ("Walgreens");

  • • our ability to effectively promote our own products and those of our co-promotion partners;

  • • the success of our fulfillment arrangements with Walgreens, including market acceptance of, or market reaction to, such arrangements (including by customers, doctors, patients, PBMs, third-party payors and governmental agencies), and the continued compliance of such arrangements with applicable laws;

  • our ability to secure and maintain third-party research, development, manufacturing, licensing, marketing or distribution arrangements;

  • the risk that our products could cause, or be alleged to cause, personal injury and adverse effects, leading to potential lawsuits, product liability claims and damages and/or recalls or withdrawals of products from the market;

  • the mandatory or voluntary recall or withdrawal of our products from the market and the costs associated therewith;

  • the availability of, and our ability to obtain and maintain, adequate insurance coverage and/or our ability to cover or insure against the total amount of the claims and liabilities we face, whether through third-party insurance or self-insurance;

  • the difficulty in predicting the expense, timing and outcome within our legal and regulatory environment, including with respect to approvals by the FDA, Health Canada and similar agencies in other countries, legal and regulatory proceedings and settlements thereof, the protection afforded by our patents and other intellectual and proprietary property, successful generic challenges to our products and infringement or alleged infringement of the intellectual property of others;

  • the results of continuing safety and efficacy studies by industry and government agencies;

  • the success of preclinical and clinical trials for our drug development pipeline or delays in clinical trials that adversely impact the timely commercialization of our pipeline products, as well as other factors impacting the commercial success of our products, which could lead to material impairment charges;

vi

  • the results of management reviews of our research and development portfolio (including following the receipt of clinical results or feedback from the FDA or other regulatory authorities), which could result in terminations of specific projects which, in turn, could lead to material impairment charges;

  • • the seasonality of sales of certain of our products;

  • declines in the pricing and sales volume of certain of our products that are distributed or marketed by third parties, over which we have no or limited control;

  • compliance by the Company or our third-party partners and service providers (over whom we may have limited influence), or the failure of our Company or these third parties to comply, with health care "fraud and abuse" laws and other extensive regulation of our marketing, promotional and business practices (including with respect to pricing), worldwide anti-bribery laws (including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the Canadian Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act), worldwide economic sanctions and/or export laws, worldwide environmental laws and regulation and privacy and security regulations;

  • the impacts of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (the "Health Care Reform Act") and potential amendment thereof and other legislative and regulatory health care reforms in the countries in which we operate, including with respect to recent government inquiries on pricing;

  • the impact of any changes in or reforms to the legislation, laws, rules, regulation and guidance that apply to the Company and its businesses and products or the enactment of any new or proposed legislation, laws, rules, regulations or guidance that will impact or apply to the Company or its businesses or products;

  • the impact of changes in federal laws and policy that may be undertaken following the change in the U.S. administration;

  • illegal distribution or sale of counterfeit versions of our products;

  • interruptions, breakdowns or breaches in our information technology systems; and

  • • risks in Item 1A. "Risk Factors" in this Form 10-K.

Additional information about these factors and about the material factors or assumptions underlying such forward-looking statements may be found elsewhere in this Form 10-K, under Item 1A. "Risk Factors" and in the Company's other filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") and the Canadian Securities Administrators (the "CSA"). When relying on our forward-looking statements to make decisions with respect to the Company, investors and others should carefully consider the foregoing factors and other uncertainties and potential events. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date made. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any of these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Form 10-K or to reflect actual outcomes, except as required by law. We caution that, as it is not possible to predict or identify all relevant factors that may impact forward-looking statements, the foregoing list of important factors that may affect future results is not exhaustive and should not be considered a complete statement of all potential risks and uncertainties.

PART I

Item 1. Business

Introduction

Bausch Health Companies Inc. is a global company whose mission is to improve people's lives with our health care products. We develop, manufacture and market, primarily in the therapeutic areas of eye-health, gastroenterology ("GI") and dermatology, a broad range of: (i) branded pharmaceuticals, (ii) generic and branded generic pharmaceuticals, (iii) over-the-counter ("OTC") products and (iv) medical devices (contact lenses, intraocular lenses, ophthalmic surgical equipment and aesthetics devices), which are marketed directly or indirectly in approximately 100 countries.

Our portfolio of products falls into four operating and reportable segments: (i) Bausch + Lomb/International, (ii) Salix, (iii) Ortho Dermatologics and (iv) Diversified Products.

  • • The Bausch + Lomb/International segment consists of: (i) sales in the U.S. of pharmaceutical products, OTC products and medical device products, primarily comprised of Bausch + Lomb products, with a focus on the Vision Care, Surgical, Consumer and Ophthalmology Rx products and (ii) with the exception of sales of Solta products, sales in Canada, Europe, Asia, Australia, Latin America, Africa and the Middle East of branded pharmaceutical products, branded generic pharmaceutical products, OTC products, medical device products and Bausch + Lomb products.

  • The Salix segment consists of sales in the U.S. of GI products.

  • The Ortho Dermatologics segment consists of: (i) sales in the U.S. of Ortho Dermatologics (dermatological) products and (ii) global sales of Solta medical aesthetic devices.

  • The Diversified Products segment consists of sales in the U.S. of: (i) pharmaceutical products in the areas of neurology and certain other therapeutic classes, (ii) generic products and (iii) dentistry products.

For additional discussion of our reportable segments, see the discussion in Item 1. "Business - Segment Information" and Note 22, "SEGMENT INFORMATION" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for further details on these reportable segments.

As discussed further in Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Overview - Separation of Bausch + Lomb Eye-Health Business" of this Form 10-K, on August 6, 2020, the Company announced that it intends to separate its eye-health business into an independent publicly traded entity from the remainder of Bausch Health Companies Inc. (the "Separation"). The Separation will establish two separate companies that include: (i) a fully integrated eye-health company which will consist of the Company's Bausch + Lomb Global Vision Care, Global Surgical, Global Consumer and Global Ophthalmology Rx businesses and (ii) a diversified pharmaceutical company which will include the Company's Salix, International Rx, Solta, generic products, neurology, dentistry and medical dermatology pharmaceutical businesses. The anticipated separation is subject to regulatory approvals and certain conditions, including final approval by the Company's Board of Directors and any shareholder vote requirements that may be applicable. In connection with the Separation, the Company expects to realign and begin managing its operations in a manner consistent with the organizational structure of the two separate entities as proposed by the Separation during the first quarter of 2021. Accordingly, the Company expects to begin reporting under the following reporting segments on a retrospective basis beginning with its first quarter of 2021: Bausch + Lomb, International Rx, Salix, Ortho Dermatologics and Diversified Products.

We are in the process of addressing the organization, structure and pro forma capitalizations of the two entities post-separation. As a result, the information in this Form 10-K relating to the Separation is preliminary and may change as the transaction progresses and any such change may be material. Further, there can be no assurance that the Separation will occur. See Item 1A. "Risk Factors - Risk Relating to the Separation" of this Form 10-K for additional risks relating to the Separation.

COVID-19 Pandemic

In December 2019, a novel strain of the coronavirus disease, COVID-19, was identified in Wuhan, China. Since then, COVID-19 has spread to most of the world, including the United States, Canada and Europe, and was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (the "WHO") on March 11, 2020. As a global health care company, now more than ever, we remain focused on our mission of helping to improve people's lives with our health care products.

We are and will continue to closely monitor the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and related responses from governments and private sector participants on the Company, our customers, supply chain, third-party suppliers, projectdevelopment timelines, costs, revenue, margins, liquidity and financial condition and our planned actions and responses to this pandemic. To date, the Company has been able to continue its operations with limited disruptions in supply and manufacturing.

We believe we have responded quickly to the human and commercial challenges brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic and that our early actions have, so far, enabled us to keep our employees safe and our supply lines largely intact and we believe these actions have laid the foundation for us to work our way through the uncertainties to come. Importantly, we believe that the steps we took over the last several years to manage our capital structure place us in a strong position to maintain sufficient liquidity to continue operations through an extended pandemic and we believe that our businesses will not see their long-term value diminished by this unprecedented situation. See Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Overview - Impacts of COVID-19" of this Form 10-K for additional information on the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and Item 1A. "Risk Factors - Risk Relating to COVID-19" of this Form 10-K for additional risks relating to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Business Strategy

Our strategy is to focus our business on core therapeutic classes that offer attractive growth opportunities. Within our chosen therapeutic classes, we prioritize durable products which we believe have the potential for strong operating margins and evidence of growth opportunities. We believe this strategy has reduced complexity in our operations and maximizes the value of our: (i) eye-health, (ii) GI and (iii) dermatology businesses, which collectively now represent a substantial portion of our revenues. We have found and continue to believe there is significant opportunity in these businesses and we believe our existing portfolio, commercial footprint and pipeline of product development projects position us to successfully compete in these markets and provide us with the greatest opportunity to build value for our shareholders. We identify these businesses as "core", meaning that we believe we are best positioned to grow and develop them.

We believe we have a well-established product portfolio that is mixed within our core businesses and provides a sustainable revenue stream to fund our operations. Our continued success is dependent upon our ability to continually refresh our pipeline and bring new product solutions to the market that meet changing demands and replace other products that have lost momentum. We have a robust pipeline that we believe not only provides for the next generation of our existing products, but is also poised to bring new and innovative solutions to market. Our R&D organization focuses on the development of products through clinical trials and, as of December 31, 2020, included approximately 1,300 dedicated R&D and quality assurance employees in 23 R&D facilities.

We have focused our R&D to advance development programs that we believe will drive growth in our core businesses, while creating efficiencies in our R&D efforts and expenses. Although we primarily rely on our R&D organization to build-out and refresh our product portfolio, to supplement those efforts, we continually seek out opportunities, such as co-promotions, licensing agreements and strategic acquisitions, to leverage our commercial footprint, particularly our sales force, by strategically aligning ourselves with other innovative product solutions that, when coupled with our existing product portfolio, address specific needs in the market. See Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Overview - Focus on Core Businesses" of this Form 10-K.

Segment Information

Our revenues for 2020, 2019 and 2018 were $8,027 million, $8,601 million and $8,380 million, respectively. We have approximately 1,300 products in our portfolio of products, which fall into four operating and reportable segments: (i) Bausch + Lomb/International, (ii) Salix, (iii) Ortho Dermatologics and (iv) Diversified Products. Segment revenues for the years 2020, 2019 and 2018 were as follows:

(in millions)

Pct.

Pct.

Pct.

Bausch + Lomb/International

$

4,408

55 %

$

4,739

55 %

$

4,664

56 %

Salix

1,904

24 %

2,022

23 %

1,749

21 %

Ortho Dermatologics

553

7 %

565

7 %

617

7 %

Diversified Products

1,162

14 %

1,275

15 %

1,350

16 %

Total revenues

$

8,027

100 %

$

8,601

100 %

$

8,380

100 %

2020 Amount

2019 Amount

2018 Amount

Comparative segment information for 2020, 2019 and 2018 is further presented in Note 22, "SEGMENT INFORMATION" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements.

Bausch + Lomb/International

Our Bausch + Lomb/International segment includes our global Bausch + Lomb eye-health business and our International Rx business. Our global Bausch + Lomb eye-health business includes our Global Vision Care, Global Surgical, Global Consumer and Global Ophthalmology Rx products, which in aggregate accounted for approximately 41%, 42% and 43% of our Company's revenues for 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Our International Rx business, with the exception of our Solta products, includes sales in Canada, Europe, Asia, Australia, Latin America, Africa and the Middle East of branded pharmaceutical products, branded generic pharmaceutical products and OTC products, which in aggregate accounted for approximately 14%, 13% and 13% of our Company's revenues for 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

Our global Bausch + Lomb business is a fully integrated eye-health business, which we believe is critical to maintaining and developing our position in the global eye-health market. As a fully integrated eye-health business with a 165-year legacy, Bausch + Lomb has an established line of contact lenses, intraocular lenses and other medical devices, surgical systems and devices, vitamin and mineral supplements, lens care products, prescription eye-medications and other consumer products that positions us to compete in all areas of the eye-health market.

As part of our global Bausch + Lomb business strategy, we continually look for key trends in the eye-health market to meet changing consumer/patient needs and identify areas for investment and growth. For instance, one of these trends is the increasing rate of myopia, and importantly, myopia as a potential risk factor for glaucoma, macular degeneration and retinal detachment. We continue to see increased demand for new eye-health products that address conditions brought on by factors, such as increased screen time, lack of outdoor activities and academic pressures, as well as conditions brought on by an aging population (for example, as more and more baby-boomers in the U.S. are reaching the age of 65). To supplement our well-established Bausch + Lomb product lines, we continue to identify new products tailored to address these key trends, which we develop internally with our own R&D team to generate organic growth. We also license selective molecules or technology in leveraging our own R&D expertise through development, as well as seek out external product development opportunities. Recent product launches include Biotrue® ONEday daily disposable contact lenses, the next generation of Bausch + Lomb ULTRA® contact lenses, SiHy Daily contact lenses, Lumify® (an eye redness treatment), Vyzulta® (a pressure lowering eye drop for patients with angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension) and Ocuvite® Eye Performance (vitamins to protect the eye from stressors such as sunlight and blue light emitted from digital devices).

Currently our principal products in the eye-health business include:

Vision Care

  • • SofLens® Daily Disposable Contact Lenses, which use ComfortMoist® Technology (a combination of thin lens design and moisture-rich packaging solution) and High Definition Optics which is an aspheric design that reduces spherical aberration over a range of powers, especially in low light.

  • • PureVision® is a silicone hydrogel frequent replacement contact lens using AerGel® technology lens material to allow natural levels of oxygen to reach the eye as well as resist protein buildup. The lens also incorporates an aspheric optical design that reduces spherical aberration.

  • • Biotrue® ONEday daily disposable contact lenses, which are made of a unique material that works like the eye to form a dehydration barrier. The lens maintains over 98% of its moisture for up to 16 hours, it matches the water content of the cornea at 78% and allows for the oxygen a healthy eye needs.

  • • Biotrue® ONEday for Astigmatism is a daily disposable contact lens for astigmatic patients. The Biotrue® ONEday lenses incorporates Surface Active Technology to provide a dehydration barrier. The Biotrue® ONEday for Astigmatism also includes evolved peri-ballast geometry to deliver stability and comfort for the astigmatic patient.

  • • Bausch + Lomb ULTRA® is a silicone hydrogel frequent replacement contact lens that uses the proprietary MoistureSeal® technology which allows the contact lens to retain 95% of moisture after 16 hours of wear, limiting lens dryness and resulting symptoms.

  • • Bausch + Lomb ULTRA® for Astigmatism is a monthly planned replacement contact lens for astigmatic patients. The Bausch + Lomb ULTRA® for Astigmatism lens was developed using the proprietary MoistureSeal® technology. In addition, the Bausch + Lomb ULTRA® for Astigmatism lens integrates an OpticAlign® design engineered for lens stability and to promote a successful wearing experience for the astigmatic patient.

  • • Bausch + Lomb ULTRA® for Presbyopia is a monthly planned replacement contact lens for presbyopic patients. The Bausch + Lomb ULTRA® for Presbyopia lens was developed using the proprietary MoistureSeal® technology. In addition, the Bausch + Lomb ULTRA® for Presbyopia lens integrates a 3-zone progressive design for near, intermediate and distance vision. We launched expanded parameters of this product throughout 2017.

  • • SiHy Daily is a silicone hydrogel daily disposable contact lens designed to provide clear vision throughout the day. In September 2018, we launched SiHy Daily in Japan under the branded name AQUALOX® ONE DAY. In August 2020, we launched SiHy Daily in the U.S. under the branded name Bausch + Lomb INFUSE SiHy Daily Disposable contact lens. SiHy Daily has also received regulatory approval for Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore and Malaysia where it will be branded as Bausch + Lomb Ultra® ONE DAY.

Surgical

  • • The Stellaris Elite® Vision Enhancement System is our next phacoemulsification cataract platform, which offers new innovations, as well as the opportunity to add upgrades and enhancements every one to two years. Stellaris Elite® is the first phacoemulsification platform on the market to offer Adaptive Fluidics, which combines aspiration control with predictive infusion management to create a responsive and controlled surgical environment for efficient and safe cataract lens removal. Our Stellaris Elite® Vision Enhancement System was launched in April 2017.

  • • The Vitesse® hypersonic vitrectomy system advances the process of vitreous removal using an innovative and effective approach. Available exclusively on the Stellaris Elite® system, Vitesse® brings an exceptional level of surgical control and precision to vitrectomies.

  • • A portfolio of ophthalmic surgical products, including: (i) pre-loaded intraocular lenses such as Akreos®, enVista®, LuxSmart and LuxGood, (ii) handcrafted surgical instruments including Storz® and Synergetics® and (iii) a suite of surgical equipment including TENEO® excimer laser for refractive and VICTUS® femtosecond laser for cataract surgery and keratoplasty.

Consumer

  • • PreserVision® AREDS 2 is an eye vitamin formula for those with moderate-to-advanced age-related macular degeneration.

  • • Ocuvite® is a vitamin and mineral supplement for the eye that contains lutein (an antioxidant carotenoid), a nutrient that supports macular health by helping filter harmful blue light.

  • • Biotrue® multi-purpose solution helps prevent certain tear proteins from denaturing and fights germs for healthy contact lens wear. Biotrue® multi-purpose solution uses a lubricant found in eyes and is pH balanced to match healthy tears.

  • • Lumify® (brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solution, 0.025%) is an OTC eye drop developed as an ocular redness reliever. Lumify® was launched in the U.S. in May 2018. We plan to launch Lumify® in South Korea in the second half of 2021 and in Canada in 2022.

  • • Bausch + Lomb Renu® Advanced Formula multi-purpose solution is a novel soft and silicone hydrogel contact lenses solution that makes use of three disinfectants and two moisture agents.

  • • Boston® solution is a specialty cleansing solution design for gas permeable contact lenses.

  • • Bedoyecta Tri® (Injectable Hydroxocobalamine, vitamin B complex) is indicated for the prevention and treatment of certain vitamin deficiencies. It is useful in the treatment of Neuritis and polyneuritis of nutritional, diabetic, alcoholic and toxic origin due to the use of drugs. Bedoyecta® is also available in soft gel and capsule form. Bedoyecta® is commercialized in Mexico and South America.

  • • Cold FX® is a product derived from the roots of North American ginseng. COLD-FX® Daily Support has a clinically proven formula that helps reduce the frequency, severity and duration of cold and flu symptoms by boosting the immune system.

  • • Artelac® is an eye moisturizer eye drop which enables quick wetting of dry eyes. Artelac® contains hypromellose, a known moisturizer, and is used to treat dehydration of the surface of the eye, especially for dry eyes with an unpleasant foreign body sensation. Artelac® is particularly suitable for alleviating mild symptoms of dry eyes and can also be used to moisten hard contact lenses while being worn. Artelac® is commercialized widely in Europe, the Middle East and Africa, Asia Pacific, Canada and Latin America.

Ophthalmology Rx

  • • Lotemax® Gel is a topical corticosteroid indicated for the treatment of inflammation and pain following ocular surgery. This formulation is a technology that allows the drug to adhere to the ocular surface and offers dose uniformity, which

eliminates the need to shake the product in order to ensure the drug is in suspension. The product contains a low concentration of preservative and two known moisturizers. Lotemax® Gel is commercialized globally.

  • • Vyzulta® (latanoprostene bunod ophthalmic solution, 0.024%) is an intraocular pressure lowering single-agent eye drop dosed once daily for patients with open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Vyzulta® was launched in the U.S. (December 2017), Canada (July 2019), Hong Kong (2020), Mexico (2020) and Argentina (2020). We are planning to launch Vyzulta® in Taiwan in 2021 and in South Korea in 2022.

  • • Prolensa® (bromfenac ophthalmic solution) 0.07% is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug indicated to treat inflammation and reduce eye pain in patients after cataract surgery. This product is commercialized widely in Europe under the brand name Yellox®.

International Rx

  • • Bisocard® (bisoprolol fumarate) is an orally administered tablet dosed once daily for patients with hypertension, angina pectoris or heart failure and is a leading brand in Poland.

  • • Thrombo ASS® (gastroprotective coated form of acetylsalicylic acid 50mg and 100mg) is an antithrombotic agent dosed once daily for secondary prophylaxis of thrombotic complications after such events as a stroke or heart attack. Thrombo ASS® is a leading brand in Russia.

  • • Contrave® / Mysimba® is a fixed-dose combination prolonged-release tablet for the treatment of obesity. Used alongside diet and exercise it is designed to help manage weight in adults who are obese or overweight. The formulation is designed to initiate weight loss and sustain it over a longer period of time by switching off natural compensatory mechanisms involved in the typical weight loss plateau stage. Contrave® / Mysimba® is commercialized in Canada, Greece, and Central Eastern Europe.

  • • Jublia® (efinaconazole 10% topical solution) is a topical azole approved for the treatment of onychomycosis of the toenails (toenail fungus). Jublia® is commercialized in Canada (the only market outside the U.S.).

  • • Ivexterm® (Ivermectin 6 mg tablets) is an antiparasitic drug, which is commercialized in Mexico and Central America, and is currently under investigational studies for treating COVID-19 patients.

  • • Espaven® (Dimethicone tablets, drops, suspension) is a complete line of gastrointestinal treatments for diverse digestive indications such as: antiflatulence, dyspepsia, absolute or relative enzyme deficiency, steatorrhea, irritable colon syndrome, pancreatic insufficiency and poor fat digestion. Espaven® is commercialized primarily in Mexico and South America.

Salix

The Salix segment consists of sales in the U.S. of GI products and includes our Xifaxan® product. We have been making investments in our Salix business since 2017, including: (i) hiring 200 trained and experienced sales force representatives to expand the commercial field force for Xifaxan®, (ii) increasing the focus on the development of next generation formulations of our Salix products to address new indications, (iii) completing the strategic acquisition of certain assets of Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc. ("Synergy"), which included the Trulance® product, and (iv) increasing the number of sales force representatives for Trulance®. In addition, we have entered into licensing agreements for investigational products, which, once developed and if approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the "FDA"), will be new treatments for certain GI and liver diseases and we anticipate will contribute to the future growth. Each of these opportunities potentially provides us with the ability to expand our GI portfolio and allows us to leverage our existing GI sales force, supply channel and distribution channel.

Currently our principal products in the Salix segment (including products of our third-party co-promotion partners) include:

  • • Xifaxan® which includes: (i) tablets indicated for the treatment of IBS-D in adults and for the reduction in risk of overt hepatic encephalopathy recurrence in adults and (ii) tablets indicated for the treatment of travelers' diarrhea caused by noninvasive strains of Escherichia coli in patients 12 years of age and older. Our Xifaxan® product accounted for revenues of $1,482 million, $1,452 million and $1,195 million for 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

  • • Glumetza® (metformin hydrochloride) extended release tablets are indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  • • Relistor® (methylnaltrexone) is given to adults who use narcotic medicine to treat severe chronic pain that is not caused by cancer to prevent constipation without reducing the pain-relieving effects of the narcotic.

  • • Trulance® (plecanatide) is a once-daily tablet for adults with chronic idiopathic constipation, or CIC, and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, or IBS-C.

  • • Plenvu® is a novel, lower-volume polyethylene glycol-based bowel preparation developed to help provide complete bowel cleansing, with an additional focus on the ascending colon. Plenvu® was launched in September 2018.

Ortho Dermatologics

The Ortho Dermatologics segment consists of: (i) sales in the U.S. of Ortho Dermatologics (dermatological products) and (ii) global sales of Solta dermatological devices.

The Ortho Dermatologics business is our medical dermatology business dedicated to the treatment of a range of therapeutic areas, including aesthetics, psoriasis, actinic keratosis, acne, atopic dermatitis, onychomycosis and other dermatoses. As part of our business strategy for the Ortho Dermatologics segment, we have made significant investments to build out our psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and acne product portfolios, which are the markets within dermatology where we see the greatest opportunities, with a focus on topical gel and lotion products over injectable biologics. We continue to support the use of injectable biologics; however, we believe some patients prefer topical products as an alternative to injectable biologics. Further, as topical products can, in many cases, defer the use of injectable biologics that often come with associated risk/benefit profiles, a topical product is usually readily adopted by payors, is less expensive and can be more cost-effective than injectable biologics. Therefore, we believe topical products represent alternative treatments for physicians, payors and patients, and as the preferred choice of treatment, have the potential to drive greater volumes, generate better margins and potentially be a key contributing factor of our Ortho Dermatologics business.

During 2017 through 2020, we have made significant investments to build out our aesthetics, psoriasis and acne product portfolios, which we believe, coupled with our experienced dermatology sales leadership team and the reorganization of our Ortho Dermatologics sales force, will position our Ortho Dermatologics business for future growth.

Currently our principal products in the medical dermatology business include:

  • • Jublia® (efinaconazole 10% topical solution) is a topical azole approved for the treatment of onychomycosis of the toenails (toenail fungus).

  • • Targretin® (bexarotene) capsules and gel are prescription medicines used to treat the skin problems arising from the disease cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, or CTCL, in patients who have not responded well to other treatments.

  • • Bryhali® was launched in November 2018 and is a novel product that contains a unique, lower concentration of halobetasol propionate for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis.

  • • Siliq® was launched in the U.S. in 2017 and is an IL-17 receptor blocker monoclonal antibody for patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.

  • • Altreno® (tretinoin 0.05%) was launched in the U.S. in October 2018 and is a lotion approved for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris in patients 9 years of age and older.

  • • Duobrii® was launched in June 2019 and is the first and only topical lotion that contains a unique combination of halobetasol propionate and tazarotene for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis in adults.

  • • Arazlo® (tazarotene) Lotion, 0.045% is an acne product containing lower concentration of tazarotene in a lotion form to help reduce irritation while maintaining efficacy and was launched in June 2020.

  • • An Acne franchise, which includes Solodyn®, a prescription oral antibiotic approved to treat only the red, pus-filled pimples of moderate to severe acne in patients 12 years of age and older, as well as Retin-A®, Clindagel® and Onexton® Gel, a fixed combination 1.2% clindamycin phosphate and 3.75% benzoyl peroxide medication for the once-daily treatment of comedonal (non-inflammatory) and inflammatory acne in patients 12 years of age and older.

Our Solta business is dedicated to the development of innovative treatment technologies that provide proven and effective medical aesthetic and therapeutic benefits to consumers. Global Solta revenues were $253 million, $194 million and $135 million for 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. The increase in revenue is primarily attributable to Next Generation Thermage FLX®, a fourth-generation non-invasive treatment option using a radiofrequency platform designed to optimize key functional characteristics and improve patient outcomes. During 2018 and 2019, Next Generation Thermage FLX® was launched in Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, China, Thailand, Vietnam, and Australia as part of our Solta medical aesthetic devices portfolio. These launches have been successful as Next Generation Thermage FLX® revenues for 2020 and 2019 were $142 million and $77 million, respectively. We expect additional launches of Next Generation Thermage FLX® in Europe in the near term, paced by country-specific regulatory registrations.

Currently our principal products in the Solta business include:

  • • Thermage® is a non-invasive radiofrequency treatment that can smooth, tighten and contour skin for an overall younger-looking appearance.

  • • Fraxel® is a treatment that improves tone, texture and radiance for aging, sun damaged or scarred skin.

  • • Clear + Brilliant® is a laser treatment that can help prevent the visible signs of aging and address the overall effects time and the environment can have on skin.

  • • VASERlipo® for minimally-invasive aesthetic body contouring that yields dramatic results with less pain and downtime of traditional liposuction.

Diversified Products

The Diversified Products segment consists of sales in the U.S. of: (i) pharmaceutical products in the areas of neurology and certain other therapeutic classes, (ii) generic products and (iii) dentistry products. The Company utilizes the Diversified Products segment to extend the long-term cash flows from a number of assets that are expected to decline over time due to the loss of exclusivity, by launching and selling authorized generic versions of certain branded assets. Our principal products in this segment include:

Pharmaceutical

  • • Wellbutrin XL® is an extended release formulation of bupropion indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults.

  • • Cuprimine® is a treatment for Wilson's disease (a condition in which high levels of copper in the body cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs), cystinuria (a condition which leads to cystine stones in the kidneys) and for patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis who have failed to respond to an adequate trial of conventional therapy.

  • • Migranal® (dihydroergotamine mesylate) Nasal Spray is used to treat an active migraine headache with or without aura.

  • • Ativan® (lorazepam) is indicated for the management of anxiety disorders or for the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxiety or anxiety associated with depressive symptoms.

  • • Xenazine® is indicated for the treatment of chorea associated with Huntington's disease. In the U.S., Xenazine® is distributed for us by Lundbeck LLC under an exclusive marketing, distribution and supply agreement.

  • • Syprine® is a treatment for Wilson's disease in patients who cannot take the medication known as penicillamine.

  • • Aplenzin® (bupropion hydrobromide extended release tablets) is indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder, and for the prevention of seasonal major depressive episodes in patients with a diagnosis of seasonal affective disorder.

  • • Librax® (chlordiazepoxide and clidinium) is indicated to control emotional and somatic factors in gastrointestinal disorders. Librax® may also be used as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of peptic ulcer and in the treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome (irritable colon, spastic colon, mucous colitis) and acute enterocolitis.

Generics

  • Diastat® authorized generic ("AG") (diazepam rectal gel) is a gel formulation of diazepam intended for rectal administration for certain patients with epilepsy who are already taking antiepileptic medications, and who require occasional use of diazepam to control bouts of increased seizure activity.

  • • Uceris® AG (budesonide) extended release tablets are a prescription corticosteroid medicine used to help get mild to moderate ulcerative colitis under control (induce remission).

  • • Elidel® AG (pimecrolimus) is a second-line therapy for short term and intermittent long-term therapy of mild to moderate atopic dermatitis.

  • • Apriso® AG is an aminosalicylate anti-inflammatory drug used to treat ulcerative colitis, proctitis and proctosigmoiditis. Apriso is also used to prevent the symptoms of ulcerative colitis from recurring. Apriso® AG was launched in December 2019.

  • • Tobramycin and Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Suspension is indicated for steroid-responsive inflammatory ocular conditions for which a corticosteroid is indicated and where superficial bacterial ocular infection or a risk of bacterial ocular infection exists.

  • • Latanoprost Ophthalmic Solution is indicated for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

Dentistry

  • • Arestin® (minocycline hydrochloride) is a subgingival sustained-release antibiotic. Arestin® is indicated as an adjunct to scaling and root planing ("SRP") procedures for reduction of pocket depth in patients with adult periodontitis. Arestin® may be used as part of a periodontal maintenance program, which includes good oral hygiene and SRP.

  • • NeutraSal® is indicated for dryness of the mouth (hyposalivation, xerostomia) and dryness of the oral mucosa due to drugs that suppress salivary secretion.

Research and Development

Our R&D organization focuses on the development of products through clinical trials. Currently, we have approximately 200 R&D projects in our pipeline. As of December 31, 2020, approximately 1,300 dedicated R&D and quality assurance employees in 23 R&D facilities were involved in our R&D efforts.

Our R&D expenses for 2020, 2019 and 2018, were $452 million, $471 million and $413 million, respectively. R&D expenses as a percentage of revenue were approximately 6% in 2020, as compared to approximately 5% in 2019 and 2018. We have rebalanced our portfolio to better align with our long-term plans and focus on core businesses. Our investment in R&D reflects our commitment to drive organic growth through internal development of new products, a pillar of our strategy. We further supplement these efforts by continually seeking out other opportunities, such as co-promotions, licensing agreements and strategic acquisitions. See Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Overview - Focus on Core Businesses" of this Form 10-K.

Trademarks, Patents, Exclusivity and Proprietary Know-How

We rely on a combination of contractual provisions, confidentiality policies and procedures and patent, trademark, copyright and trade secrecy laws to protect the proprietary aspects of our technology and business. Our policy is to vigorously protect, enforce and defend our rights to our intellectual property and proprietary rights, as appropriate. See Item 1A. "Risk Factors" of this Form 10-K for additional information on the risks associated with our intellectual property and proprietary rights.

Trademarks

We believe that trademark protection is an important part of establishing product and brand recognition. We own or license a number of registered trademarks and trademark applications in the U.S., Canada and in various other countries throughout the world. U.S. federal registrations for trademarks remain in force for 10 years and may be renewed every 10 years after issuance, provided the mark is still being used in commerce. Trademark registrations in Canada issued on or before June 17, 2019 remain in force for 15 years and may be renewed for 10-year terms, provided that, as in the case of U.S. federal trademark registrations, the mark is still being used in commerce. Trademark registrations in Canada issued after June 17, 2019 remain in force for 10 years and may be renewed every 10 years after issuance, provided that, as in the case of U.S. federal trademark registrations, the mark is still being used in commerce. Other countries generally have similar but varying terms and renewal policies with respect to trademarks registered in those countries.

Data and Patent Exclusivity

For certain of our products, we rely on a combination of regulatory and patent rights to protect the value of our investment in the development of these products.

A patent is the grant of a property right which allows its holder to exclude others from, among other things, selling the subject invention in, or importing such invention into, the jurisdiction that granted the patent. In the U.S., Canada and the European Union ("EU"), generally patents expire 20 years from the date of application. We have obtained, acquired or in-licensed a number of patents and patent applications covering key aspects of certain of our principal products. In the aggregate, our patents are of material importance to our business taken as a whole.

In the U.S., the Hatch-Waxman Act provides non-patent regulatory exclusivity for five years from the date of the first FDA approval of a new drug compound in a New Drug Application ("NDA"). The FDA, with one exception, is prohibitedduring those five years from accepting for filing a generic, or an Abbreviated New Drug Application ("ANDA"), that references the NDA. In reference to the foregoing exception, if a patent is indexed in the FDA Orange Book for the new drug compound, a generic may file an ANDA four years from the NDA approval date if it also files a Paragraph IV Certification with the FDA challenging the patent. Protection under the Hatch-Waxman Act will not prevent the filing or approval of another full NDA. However, the NDA applicant would be required to conduct its own pre-clinical and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials to independently demonstrate safety and effectiveness.

A similar data exclusivity scheme exists in the EU, whereby only the pioneer drug company can use data obtained at the pioneer's expense for up to eight years from the date of the first approval of a drug by the European Medicines Agency ("EMA") and no generic drug can be marketed for ten years from the approval of the innovator product. Under both the U.S. and the EU data exclusivity programs, products without patent protection can be marketed by others so long as they repeat the clinical trials necessary to show safety and efficacy.

In the U.S., the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act ("BPCIA") allows companies to seek FDA approval to manufacture and sell biosimilar or interchangeable versions of brand name biological products. Due to the size and complexity of biological products, as compared to small molecule drugs, a biosimilar must be "highly similar" to the reference product with "no clinically meaningful differences" in safety, purity and potency between the two. The BPCIA provides reference product sponsors with 12 years (with potential for six additional months of pediatric exclusivity) of market exclusivity, but unlike the Hatch-Waxman Act which covers small molecules, it does not require reference product sponsors to list patents in an Orange Book equivalent and does not include an automatic 30-month stay of FDA approval upon the timely filing of a lawsuit. The BPCIA, however, does provide pre-litigation procedures for the parties to follow, including identification of relevant patents and each party's basis for infringement and invalidity. A biosimilar patent application cannot be filed until four years after the reference product is first licensed and a biosimilar cannot be launched, at the earliest (assumes no patent litigation or an adverse decision on all patents), until the expiration of the twelve years of data exclusivity from the approval of the reference product.

Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may designate a product as an orphan drug if it is a drug intended to treat a disease or condition that affects populations of fewer than 200,000 individuals in the U.S. or a disease whose incidence rates number more than 200,000 where the sponsor establishes that it does not realistically anticipate that its product sales will be sufficient to recover its costs. The sponsor that obtains the first marketing approval for a designated orphan drug for a given rare disease is eligible to receive marketing exclusivity for use of that drug for the orphan indication for a period of seven years.

In Canada, the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations ("PM(NOC) Regulations") create a regime analogous to the U.S. Hatch-Waxman Act, and link the regulatory approval process for generic and biosimilar drugs to the adjudication of innovator patent rights. To be eligible for protection under the PM(NOC) Regulations, patents must first be listed on the Patent Register in connection with an innovator's drug submission to Health Canada. A generic or biosimilar manufacturer must then provide notice to the innovator of its plans to market a drug that it compared to the innovator's patented drug in the Health Canada approval process. Within 45 days of receiving such a notice of allegation, an innovator drug company may commence patent infringement proceedings against the generic or biosimilar manufacturer. The commencement of an action by the innovator under the PM(NOC) Regulations may stay Health Canada's regulatory approval of the generic or biosimilar drug for a period of 24 months.

Canada also employs a data exclusivity regime for innovative drugs that provides an eight-year period of data protection from the date of market approval by Health Canada. An additional six months of data exclusivity is provided for drugs studied in clinical trials relating to use in pediatric populations. Drug submissions seeking approval based on a comparison to an innovative drug cannot be filed during the first six years of the data exclusivity period. Generic or biosimilar drug submissions remain on hold until expiry of the innovator's data protection term, unless the innovative product is a patented drug subject to further protection under the PM(NOC) Regulations. Canada has no distinct drug submission process for biosimilar or orphan drug products.

Proprietary Know-How

We also rely upon unpatented proprietary know-how, trade secrets and technological innovation in the development and manufacture of many of our principal products. We protect our proprietary rights through a variety of methods, including confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements and proprietary information agreements with vendors, employees, consultants and others who may have access to proprietary information.

Government Regulations

Government authorities in the U.S., at the federal, state and local level, in Canada, in the EU and in all other countries extensively regulate, among other things, the research, development, testing, approval, manufacturing, labeling, post-approval monitoring and reporting, packaging, advertising and promotion, storage, distribution, marketing and export and import of pharmaceutical products and medical devices. As such, our products and product candidates are subject to extensive regulation both before and after approval. The process of obtaining regulatory approvals and the subsequent compliance with applicable federal, state, local and foreign statutes and regulations require the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. Failure to comply with these regulations could result in, among other things, warning letters, civil penalties, delays in approving or refusal to approve a product candidate, product recall, product seizure, interruption of production, operating restrictions, suspension or withdrawal of product approval, injunctions or criminal prosecution.

Prior to human use, FDA approval (drugs (in the form of an NDA or ANDA for generic equivalents), biologics (in the form of a Biologics License Application ("BLA")) and some medical devices) or marketing clearance (other devices) must be obtained in the U.S., approval by Health Canada must be obtained in Canada, EMA approval (drugs) or a CE Marking (devices) must be obtained for countries that are part of the EU and approval must be obtained from comparable agencies in other countries prior to manufacturing or marketing new pharmaceutical products or medical devices. Generally, preclinical studies and clinical trials of the products must first be conducted and the results submitted to the applicable regulatory agency (such as the FDA) for approval.

Regulation by other federal agencies, such as the Drug Enforcement Administration, and state and local authorities in the U.S., and by comparable agencies in certain foreign countries, is also required. In the U.S., the Federal Trade Commission (the "FTC"), the FDA and state and local authorities regulate the advertising of medical devices, prescription drugs, OTC drugs and cosmetics. The Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, as amended and the regulations promulgated thereunder, and other federal and state statutes and regulations, govern, among other things, the testing, manufacture, safety, effectiveness, labeling, storage, record keeping, approval, sale, distribution, advertising and promotion of our products. The FDA requires a Boxed Warning (sometimes referred to as a "Black Box" Warning) for products that have shown a significant risk of severe or life-threatening adverse events and similar warnings are also required to be displayed on the product in certain other jurisdictions.

Manufacturers of pharmaceutical products and medical devices are required to comply with manufacturing regulations, including current good manufacturing practices and quality system management requirements, enforced by the FDA and Health Canada, in the U.S. and Canada respectively, and similar regulations enforced by regulatory agencies in other countries and we face annual audits of our facilities and plants and those of our contract manufacturers by the FDA and such other regulatory agencies. In addition, we are subject to price control restrictions on our pharmaceutical products in many countries in which we operate.

We are also subject to extensive U.S. federal and state health care marketing and fraud and abuse regulations, such as the federal False Claims Act, federal and provincial marketing regulations in Canada and similar regulations in foreign countries in which we may conduct our business. The federal False Claims Act imposes civil and criminal liability on individuals or entities who submit (or cause the submission of) false or fraudulent claims for payment to the government. The U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits persons or entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, to induce either the referral of an individual, or the furnishing, recommending, or arranging for a good or service, for which payment may be made under a federal or state health care program such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Some state anti-kickback laws also prohibit such conduct where commercial insurance, rather than federal or state, programs are involved. Due to recent legislative changes, violations of the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute also carry potential federal False Claims Act liability. In addition, in the U.S., Canada and various other countries, companies may not promote drugs or medical devices for "off-label" uses - that is, uses that are not described in the product's labeling and that differ from those that were approved or cleared by the FDA, Health Canada or applicable regulatory agency in such other countries - and "off-label promotion" in the U.S. has also formed the predicate for False Claims Act liability resulting in significant financial settlements. These and other laws and regulations, rules and policies may significantly impact the manner in which we are permitted to market our products. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of these laws, regulations, rules or policies or any other law or governmental regulation, or if interpretations of the foregoing change, we may be subject to civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, exclusion from the Medicare and Medicaid programs and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations.

We are also subject to various state, federal and international laws and regulations governing the collection, transmission, dissemination, use, privacy, confidentiality, security, retention, availability, integrity and other processing of health-related and other sensitive and personal information, including, but not limited to, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 (collectively, "HIPAA"). HIPAA mandates, among other things, the adoption of uniform standards for the electronic exchange of information in common health care transactions (e.g., health care claims information and plan eligibility, referral certification andauthorization, claims status, plan enrollment, coordination of benefits and related information), as well as standards relating to the privacy and security of individually identifiable health information. These standards require the adoption of administrative, physical and technical safeguards to protect such information. Many states in which we operate have laws that protect the privacy and security of sensitive and personal information, including health-related information. Certain state laws may be more stringent or broader in scope, or offer greater individual rights, with respect to sensitive and personal information than federal, international or other state laws, and such laws may differ from each other, which may complicate compliance efforts. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act (the "CCPA"), which went into effect on January 1, 2020, imposes stringent data privacy and security requirements and obligations with respect to the personal information of California residents, including, among other things, new disclosures to California consumers and providing such consumers new data protection and privacy rights, including the ability to opt out of certain sales of personal information. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for certain data breaches that result in the loss of personal data that may increase the likelihood of, and risks associated with, data breach litigation. It remains unclear how various provisions of the CCPA will be interpreted and enforced, and multiple states have enacted or are expected to enact similar laws. The effects on our business of the CCPA and other similar state laws are potentially significant, and may require us to modify our data processing practices and policies and to incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply. State laws are changing rapidly and there is discussion in Congress of a new federal data protection and privacy law to which we may be subject.

Additionally, some statutory requirements, both in the U.S. and abroad, include obligations for companies to notify individuals of security breaches involving particular personal information, which could result from breaches experienced by us or our service providers. For example, laws in all 50 U.S. states require businesses to provide notice to customers whose personal data has been disclosed as a result of a data breach. The laws are not consistent, and compliance in the event of a widespread data breach is difficult and may be costly. Moreover, states have been frequently amending existing laws, requiring attention to changing regulatory requirements.

Internationally, laws and regulations in many jurisdictions apply broadly to the collection, transmission, dissemination, use, privacy, confidentiality, security, retention, availability, integrity and other processing of health-related and other sensitive and personal information. For example, in the European Economic Area (the "EEA") and, for the duration of the transition period (as defined below), the United Kingdom, the collection and use of personal data, including clinical trial data, is governed by the provisions of the General Data Protection Regulation (the "GDPR"). The GDPR became effective on May 25, 2018, repealing its predecessor directive and increasing responsibility and liability of companies in relation to the processing of personal data of EU data subjects. The GDPR, together with national legislation, regulations and guidelines of the EU member states and the United Kingdom governing the processing of personal data, impose strict obligations and restrictions on the ability to collect, analyze, store, transfer and otherwise process personal data, including health data from clinical trials and adverse event reporting. In particular, the GDPR includes obligations and restrictions concerning the consent and rights of the individuals to whom the personal data relates, the transfer of personal data out of the EEA or the United Kingdom, security breach notifications and the security and confidentiality of personal data. The GDPR authorizes fines for certain violations of up to 4% of global annual revenue or €20 million, whichever is greater. European data protection authorities may interpret the GDPR and national laws differently and impose additional requirements, which contributes to the complexity of processing personal data in or from the EEA or United Kingdom. Guidance on implementation and compliance practices is often updated or otherwise revised. We are also subject to Canada's federal Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and substantially similar equivalents at the provincial level with respect to the collection, use and disclosure of personal information in Canada. Such federal and provincial legislation impose data privacy and security obligations on our processing of personal information of Canadian residents. The federal and Alberta legislation include mandatory data breach notification requirements. Canada's Anti-Spam Legislation ("CASL") also applies to the extent that we send commercial electronic messages from Canada or to electronic addresses in Canada. CASL contains prescriptive consent, form, content and unsubscribe mechanism requirements. Penalties for non-compliance with CASL are up to CAD 10 million per violation. These laws and regulations may be interpreted and applied differently over time and from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and it is possible they will be interpreted and applied in ways that will materially and adversely affect our business. The regulatory framework for data privacy, data security and data transfers worldwide is rapidly evolving and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. Complying with all of these laws and regulations involves costs to our business, and failure to comply with these laws and regulations can result in the imposition of significant civil and criminal penalties, as well as litigation.

Successful commercialization of our products may depend, in part, on the availability of governmental and third-party payor reimbursement for the cost of our products. Third-party payors may include government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations. In the U.S., the E.U. and other significant or potentially significant markets for our products and product candidates, government authorities and third-party payors are increasingly attempting to limit or regulate the price of medical products and services, which has resulted in lower average realized prices. In the U.S., these pressures can arise from rules and practices of managed care groups, judicial decisions and governmental laws and regulations related to Medicare, Medicaid and health care reform, pharmaceutical reimbursement policies and pricing in general. In particular, sales of our products may be subject to discounts from list price and rebate obligations, as well as formularycoverage decisions impacting or limiting the types of patients for whom coverage will be provided. Various U.S. health care and other laws regulate our interactions with government agencies, private insurance companies and other third-party payors regarding coverage and reimbursement for our products. Failure to comply with these laws could subject us to civil, criminal and administrative sanctions. In countries outside the U.S., the success of our products may depend, at least in part, on obtaining and maintaining government reimbursement because, in many countries, patients are unlikely to use prescription drugs that are not reimbursed by their governments. In addition, negotiating prices with certain governmental authorities for newly developed products can delay commercialization. In Canada and many international markets, governments control the prices of prescription pharmaceuticals, including through the implementation of reference pricing, price cuts, rebates, revenue-related taxes, tenders and profit control, and they expect prices of prescription pharmaceuticals to decline over the life of the product or as volumes increase.

In the U.S. and certain foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory proposals to change the health care system in ways that could impact our ability to sell our products profitably. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the "PPACA"), as amended by the Health Care Reform Act, may affect the operational results of companies in the pharmaceutical and medical device industries, including the Company and other health care related industries, by imposing on them additional costs. Although efforts at replacing the Health Care Reform Act have stalled in Congress, there are a number of proposals that we expect to be introduced to Congress and put forth by the Biden administration that may result in further changes to the health care system that could materially impact the Company.

For example, on January 28, 2021, President Biden issued the "Executive Order on Strengthening Medicaid and the Affordable Care Act," which directs federal agencies to review all existing regulations, orders, guidance documents, policies and any other similar agency actions that limit Americans' access to high-quality health care, and to consider actions that will protect and strengthen Medicaid, the PPACA and access to affordable health care for every American. Under this order, federal agencies must make determinations as to whether additional actions are necessary to advance President Biden's overall access policy and specifically examine (i) policies that may undermine protections for people with pre-existing conditions, including complications related to COVID-19, (ii) demonstrations and waivers that may reduce coverage under or otherwise undermine Medicaid or the PPACA, (iii) policies that may undermine the Health Insurance Marketplace or other markets for health insurance, (iv) policies that may present unnecessary barriers to enroll in Medicaid or the PPACA and (v) policies or practices that may reduce the affordability of coverage or financial assistance for coverage, including for dependents. We cannot predict what changes will result from the Executive Order or when they will take effect, nor is it possible at this time to estimate the impact of any such changes on the Company.

See Item 1A. "Risk Factors" of this Form 10-K for additional information on the risks associated with these regulations and related matters.

Environmental and Other Regulation

Our facilities and operations are subject to federal, state and local environmental and occupational health and safety laws and regulations in both the U.S. and countries outside the U.S. (including Canada), including those governing the discharge of substances into the air, water and land, the handling, treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, wastewater and solid waste, the cleanup of contaminated properties and other environmental matters. Certain of our development and manufacturing activities involve the use of hazardous substances. We believe we are in compliance in all material respects with applicable environmental and occupational health and safety laws and regulations. We are not aware of any pending environmental or occupational health and safety litigation or significant liabilities that are likely to have a material adverse effect on our financial position. We cannot assure, however, that environmental liabilities relating to us or facilities owned, leased or operated by us will not develop in the future, and we cannot predict whether any such liabilities, if they were to develop, would require significant expenditures on our part. In addition, we are unable to predict what environmental or and occupational health and safety legislation or regulations may be adopted or enacted in the future. See Item 1A. "Risk Factors" of this Form 10-K for additional information.

Customers and Marketing

In 2020, the U.S. and Puerto Rico accounted for approximately 60% of our total revenue. No other country accounted for more than 5%. See Note 22, "SEGMENT INFORMATION" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for revenues by geographic area.

Customers that accounted for 10% or more of our total revenue for 2020, 2019 and 2018 are as follows:

2020

2019

2018

McKesson Corporation

17%

17%

18%

AmerisourceBergen Corporation

17%

16%

18%

Cardinal Health, Inc.

13%

14%

13%

We currently promote our pharmaceutical products to physicians, hospitals, pharmacies and wholesalers through our own sales force and sell through wholesalers. In some markets, we additionally sell directly to physicians, hospitals and large drug store chains and we sell through distributors in countries where we do not have our own sales staff. As part of our marketing program for pharmaceuticals, we use direct to customer advertising, direct mailings, advertise in trade, social media and medical periodicals, exhibit products at medical conventions and sponsor medical education symposia.

Competition

Competitive Landscape for Products and Products in Development

The pharmaceutical and medical device industries are highly competitive. Our competitors include specialty and other large pharmaceutical companies, medical device companies, biotechnology companies, OTC companies and generic manufacturers, in the U.S., Canada, Europe, Asia, Latin America, Middle East, Africa and in other countries in which we market our products. The dermatology competitive landscape is highly fragmented, with a large number of mid-size and smaller companies competing in both the prescription sector and the OTC and cosmeceutical sectors. With respect to the GI market, generic entrants continue to capture significant share for treatment of many GI conditions. In the area of irritable bowel syndrome ("IBS") and OIC, competitors have recently launched new competing products, which should increase the size of these markets and intensify competition. The market for Bausch + Lomb products is very competitive, both across product categories and geographies. In addition to larger diversified pharmaceutical and medical device companies, we face competition in the eye-health market from mid-size and smaller, regional and entrepreneurial companies with fewer products in niche areas or regions.

Our competitors are pursuing the development and/or acquisition of pharmaceuticals, medical devices and OTC products that target the same diseases and conditions that we are targeting in dermatology, GI, eye-health and other therapeutic areas. Academic and other research and development institutions may also develop products or technologies that compete with our products, which technologies and products may be acquired or licensed by our competitors. These competitors may have greater financial, R&D or marketing resources than we do. If competitors introduce new products, delivery systems or processes with therapeutic or cost advantages, our products can be subject to progressive price reductions or decreased volume of sales, or both. Most new products that we introduce must compete with other products already on the market or products that are later developed by competitors.

We sell a broad range of products, and competitive factors vary by product line and geographic area in which the products are sold. The principal methods of competition for our products include quality, efficacy, market acceptance, price and marketing and promotional efforts.

Generic Competition and Loss of Exclusivity

We face increased competition from manufacturers of generic pharmaceutical products when patents covering certain of our currently marketed products expire or are successfully challenged or when the regulatory exclusivity for our products expires or is otherwise lost. Generic versions are generally significantly less expensive than branded versions, and, where available, may be required to be utilized before or in preference to the branded version under third-party reimbursement programs, or substituted by pharmacies. Accordingly, when a branded product loses its market exclusivity, it normally faces intense price competition from generic forms of the product. To successfully compete for business with managed care and pharmacy benefits management organizations, we must often demonstrate that our products offer not only medical benefits, but also cost advantages as compared with other forms of care.

For details regarding products that are facing generic competition, products that could potentially face generic competition, the corresponding potential revenue impact and infringement proceedings we initiated against potential generic competition, see Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Business Trends - Generic Competition and Loss of Exclusivity" of this Form 10-K. See Note 20, "LEGAL PROCEEDINGS" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for further details regarding certain infringement proceedings. See Item 1A. "Risk Factors" of this Form 10-K for additional information on our competition risks.

Manufacturing

We currently operate approximately 38 manufacturing sites worldwide and continue to make capital investments in these facilities as discussed in Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Overview - Focus on Core Businesses" of this Form 10-K.

In the normal course of business, our products, devices and facilities are the subject of ongoing oversight and review by regulatory and governmental agencies, including general, for cause and pre-approval inspections by the relevant competent authorities where we have business operations. Through the date of this filing, all of our global operations and facilities have the relevant operational good manufacturing practices certificates and all Company products and operating sites are in good compliance standing with all relevant notified bodies and global health authorities. Further, all sites under FDA jurisdiction are rated as either No Action Indicated (where there was no Form 483 observation) or Voluntary Action Indicated ("VAI") (where there was a Form 483 with one or more observations). In the case of VAI inspection outcomes, the FDA has accepted our responses to the issues cited, which will be verified when the agency makes its next inspection of those specific facilities. A Form 483 is issued at the end of each inspection when FDA investigators have observed any condition that in their judgment may constitute violations of current good manufacturing practices.

We also subcontract the manufacturing of certain of our products, including products manufactured under the rights acquired from other pharmaceutical companies. Products representing approximately 20% of our product sales for 2020 are produced in total, or in part, by third-party manufacturers under manufacturing arrangements.

In some cases, the principal raw materials, including active pharmaceutical ingredients, used by us (or our third-party manufacturers) for our various products are purchased in the open market or are otherwise available from several sources. However, some of the active pharmaceutical ingredients and other raw materials used in our products and some of the finished products themselves are currently only available from a single source; or others may in the future become available from only one source. For example, with respect to some of our largest or most significant products, the supply of the finished product for each of our Siliq®, Duobrii®, Bryhali®, Lumify®, Trulance®, Vyzulta®, SofLens®, Wellbutrin XL®, Ocuvite®, PreserVision®, Renu®, Xenazine®, Aplenzin®, Relistor® Oral and PureVision® products are only available from a single source and the supply of active pharmaceutical ingredient for each of our Siliq®, Duobrii®, Bryhali®, Trulance®, Vyzulta®, Xenazine®, Aplenzin®, and Relistor® Oral products are also only available from a single source. Any disruption in the supply of any such single-sourced active pharmaceutical ingredient, other raw material or finished product or an increase in the cost of such materials or products could adversely impact our ability to manufacture or sell such products, the ability of our third-party manufacturers to supply us with such products, or our profitability. We attempt to manage the risks associated with reliance on single sources of active pharmaceutical ingredient, other raw materials or finished products by carrying additional inventories or, where possible, developing second sources of supply. See Item 1A. "Risk Factors" for additional information on the risks associated with our manufacturing arrangements.

Our global supply team worked diligently to stay ahead of the challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic once it appeared in Asia. See Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis - Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic" for further information.

Human Capital Resources

In order to achieve our vision of being a trusted health care partner, we strive to ensure our employees around the world feel proud to be a part of Bausch Health Companies Inc.

As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately 21,600 employees, which included approximately 11,100 in production, 7,600 in sales and marketing, 1,600 in general and administrative positions and 1,300 in R&D. These employees are located around the world, with 7,100 in the United States and Canada, 6,500 in Europe, 2,800 in the Middle East and Africa, 2,400 in Asia-Pacific countries, 2,100 in Latin America, and 700 in Russia and Commonwealth of Independent State countries.

Collective bargaining exists for some employees in several countries in which we do business. We consider our relations with our employees to be good and have not experienced any work stoppages, slowdowns or other serious labor problems that have materially impeded our business operations.

During fiscal 2020, our voluntary turnover rate was lower than in prior years, partially attributable to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. We have not experienced any significant business disruption to date as a result of turnover, and we regularly conduct an employee engagement survey globally in order to keep a pulse on the organization. Based on the survey results, we believe that our employees are proud to work for Bausch Health Companies Inc. and 87% would recommend our Company as a good place to work.

Health, Safety and Wellness

Our employees' health, safety, and wellness are important to us. With the COVID-19 outbreak, a focus in 2020 was protecting the health and safety of our employees and their families. We broadened our existing remote work policies to enable our global employees to work from home wherever possible. In circumstances where remote work was not possible (such as at our manufacturing and distribution facilities) we implemented safety measures to ensure we prevented the spread of COVID-19 in the workplace, such as mandatory face coverings, social distancing, hand hygiene, plexiglass barriers, limited face-to-face meetings and other procedures as prescribed by global public health organizations, such as the WHO and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

On an ongoing basis, we measure how well we are fostering the health and safety of our employees through our Days Away Rate ("DAR"), which captures globally the number of days that our employees are away from work due to illness or injury. In 2020, we achieved an annual DAR of 11, which surpassed our annual goal of 13 and exceeds the industry standard of 24 days away.

We also recognize that physical, emotional and financial wellbeing are significant contributors to our employees success at work and home, especially in 2020. We aim to support our employees in all aspects of their everyday life by centering programs and activities around these three pillars of wellbeing. Across each of these pillars, we offer a range of resources to help our employees be healthy and feel successful in both their professional and personal lives, including through employee assistance programs. For 2020, we also provided resources for our employees specifically in response to COVID-19, including launching a website - Collaborating in the New Normal - to help our employees encourage each other, lead with empathy and adapt as we navigated these unprecedented times.

Diversity and Inclusion

We are dedicated to fostering an inclusive work environment where everyone feels welcomed, supported and valued for their talents and contributions. Our Bausch Health Diversity & Inclusion ("D&I") strategy centers on connecting our employees to our Company, each other, and our communities to cultivate a sense of trust, respect and belonging for all. We have a D&I Council that is led by our Company's Executive Committee members sponsored by our Chief Human Resources Officer, General Counsel, and Chief Medical Officer/President R&D that provides oversight for our D&I strategy and initiatives.

We strive to advance candid conversations among our employees about racism and expanding diversity and inclusion training and education for them. Specifically, we have provided all employees with educational tools and resources to understand how to talk about these topics at work and have introduced training aimed at helping employees become more aware of unconscious biases.

We are focused on continuing to expand our Employee Resource Groups ("ERGs"), providing opportunities for professional growth, development and informal networking. The Bausch Health Women's Leadership Network advances the growth and leadership development of women at our Company. In 2020, they facilitated a roundtable discussion with three female members of our Executive Committee - our Chief Human Resources Officer, General Counsel, and President of our Diversified Business - to discuss their views on the most important qualities of leadership. They also hosted guest speakers focused on the importance of building resilience and practicing mindfulness, as well as effectively managing stress. Our Bausch Health Military Network Employee Resource Group was recently formed as well, and in their inaugural year they hosted a virtual Veterans Day tribute and organized a Toys for Tots drive to support local communities.

Talent Development

We are committed to the development of our employees and believe that our success coincides with our employees' achievements of personal and professional goals.

Through our Employee Development Framework, we endeavor to support our employees' interests to grow to their full potential, achieve career goals, and contribute to the success of our Company. We empower employees to explore roles that are of interest and gain insights into their strengths and development needs. We provide a variety of development programs to support our employees at every stage of their career and incorporate individual development plans that aim to help our employees reach their career goals.

We also have a robust, global succession planning process that allows us to define talent needs based on business strategy, identify talent and drive their development and growth, strengthen the pipeline for critical leadership positions, and optimize talent deployment across the business. As detailed in its charter, the Talent and Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors assists the Board with oversight of our Company's talent management and succession planning process. The Board of Directors reviews succession planning progress and specifically the plans for Executive Committee roles. To supportthis process, the Board interacts with leaders and managers throughout the organization during the year to get to know these employees and their work.

Total Rewards

Our Company's total rewards philosophy is designed to attract, retain, motivate, and engage our employees. We provide comprehensive and market competitive compensation and benefit programs across our geographies, aligning these programs with the interests of our shareholders and balancing appropriate risk taking. Collectively, these programs comprise our Total Rewards package.

Our compensation program includes base pay, short-term incentives, and long-term incentives. We provide the opportunity for our employees to earn more when we deliver against objectives - both as a total company and individually. We also provide competitive benefit programs based on local practice in the countries where our employees work. Our programs include medical coverage, retirement benefits, paid time off, and life and other insurances. Based on local market practice in the geographies in which we operate, we also offer family planning benefits to our employees such as adoption and surrogacy assistance programs.

Corporate Social Responsibility

In 2017, we established The Bausch Foundation, which supports initiatives aimed at disease prevention, improving patient outcomes, and community support related to our core businesses. Additionally, it supports global relief efforts and those who need help in the communities in which we live and work.

The support of our employees is essential to the success of the foundation. For example, in order to offer support to others during the pandemic, we established a campaign for our employees to donate to Feeding America, with the foundation matching up to $100,000 of these contributions. Our employees may also submit a request to the foundation for a financial contribution to support the charitable efforts of an organization they support. During 2020, the foundation, which is managed by our employees, donated medicines and health care products to assist in the global fight against the COVID-19 virus.

We are committed to supporting patients who have lost employment health benefits due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and because it is important to continue prescribed treatments, we are proud to offer certain of our prescription medicines through our Bausch Health Assistance Program. In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, some people have financial obstacles that keep them from obtaining and continuing their prescribed treatments. The purpose of the Bausch Health Patient Assistance Program is to provide eligible unemployed patients in the U.S., who have lost their health insurance due to the COVID-19 pandemic, with certain of our prescription products although their financial circumstances or insurance status may otherwise interfere with their ability to do so. If approved, patients receive their Bausch Health Companies Inc. prescription product(s) at no cost to them for up to one year, and may be able to reapply to the program annually if they continue to meet eligibility requirements and have a valid prescription.

See Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis - Overview - Focus on Core Businesses - Improve Patient Access" for additional discussion regarding Company programs to address the affordability and availability of our products.

Product Liability Insurance

Since March 31, 2014, we have self-insured substantially all of our product liability risk for claims arising after that date. In the future, we will continue to re-evaluate our decision to self-insure and may purchase additional product liability insurance to cover product liability risk. See Item 1A. "Risk Factors" of this Form 10-K for additional information.

Seasonality of Business

Historically, revenues from our business tend to be weighted toward the second half of the year. Sales in the first quarter tend to be lower as patient co-pays and deductibles reset at the beginning of each year. Sales in the fourth quarter tend to be higher based on consumer and customer purchasing patterns associated with health care reimbursement programs. However, there are no assurances that these historical trends will continue in the future.

Geographic Areas

A significant portion of our revenues is generated from operations or otherwise earned outside the U.S. and Canada. All of our foreign operations are subject to risks inherent in conducting business abroad, including price and currency exchange controls, fluctuations in the relative values of currencies, political and economic instability and restrictive governmental actions including possible nationalization or expropriation. Changes in the relative values of currencies may materially affect our results of operations. For a discussion of these risks, see Item 1A. "Risk Factors" of this Form 10-K.

See Note 22, "SEGMENT INFORMATION" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for revenues and long-lived assets by geographic area.

A portion of our revenue and income was earned in Canada and Ireland, which have low effective tax rates. See Item 1A. "Risk Factors" of this Form 10-K relating to tax rates for more information.

Available Information

Our Internet address is www.bauschhealth.com. We post links on our website to the following filings as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed or furnished to the SEC: annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and any amendment to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. All such filings are available through our website free of charge. The information on our Internet website is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K or our other securities filings and is not a part of such filings. The SEC also maintains an Internet website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, including us, that file electronically with the SEC.

We are also required to file reports and other information with the securities commissions in all provinces in Canada. You are invited to read and copy any reports, statements or other information, other than confidential filings, that we file with the provincial securities commissions. These filings are also electronically available from the Canadian System for Electronic Document Analysis and Retrieval ("SEDAR") at www.sedar.com, the Canadian equivalent of the SEC's electronic document gathering and retrieval system.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

Our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations are subject to various risks and uncertainties. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Form 10-K, including those risks set forth under the heading entitled "Forward-Looking Statements" and in other documents that we file with the SEC and the CSA, before making any investment decision with respect to our common shares or debt securities. If any of the risks or uncertainties actually occur or develop, our business, financial condition, cash flows, results of operations and/or future growth prospects could change, and such change could be materially adverse. Under these circumstances, the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment in our common shares and/or debt securities.

Summary of Risk Factors

The following is a summary of the risk factors our business faces. The list below is not exhaustive, and investors should read this "Risk Factors" section in full. Some of the risks we face include:

  • • the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, financial condition, cash flows, and results of operations;

  • • the impact on our business from the separation of our eye-health business into an independent publicly traded entity;

  • • the ongoing legal proceedings, investigations, and inquiries respecting certain of our historical distribution, marketing, pricing, disclosure and accounting practices;

  • • the impact of changes to our pricing practices, whether imposed, legislated or voluntary;

  • • the potential adverse impact of legal proceedings, litigation, and government investigations;

  • • our dependence on third parties to meet their contractual, legal, regulatory, and other obligations;

  • • the impact of product recalls and related product liability claims;

  • • our ability to comply with extensive regulation concerning marketing, promotional and business practices;

  • • our ability to comply with restrictive covenants in our debt agreements;

  • • our ability to generate cash in order to service our debt;

  • • the impact on our business of restrictions imposed by our significant indebtedness;

  • • the effect of interest rate changes, including the potential discontinuation of LIBOR;

  • • our ability to recruit and retain executives and key personnel;

  • • the potential increase of our effective tax rates;

  • • our ability to compete with generic competitors in products that represent a significant amount of our revenue;

  • • our ability to obtain, maintain, enforce or defend the intellectual property rights required to conduct our business;

  • • our ability to develop or acquire more effective or less costly pharmaceutical or OTC products or medical devices than our competitors;

  • • the effect of our commitment to the cessation of or limitation on pricing increases for certain of our products;

  • • the impact of divestitures of certain of our assets and business;

  • • the potential adverse effect of acquisitions of assets, products and businesses;

  • • our ability to maintain and provide appropriate training in our products to our health care providers;

  • • our ability to achieve or maintain expected levels of market acceptance for our new products;

  • • our dependence on reimbursements from governmental and other third-party payors;

  • • the impact of a failure to be included in formularies developed by managed care organizations and third-party payors;

  • • the failure of our fulfillment arrangements with Walgreens and our dermatology cash-pay prescription program;

  • • risks associated with the international scope of our operations;

  • • foreign currency exposure on the translation into U.S. dollars of the financial results of our international operations;

  • • our ability to successfully commercialize our pipeline products;

  • • our ability to comply with ongoing regulatory review of our marketed drugs;

  • • the effect that the United Kingdom's exit from the European Union may have on the development, regulatory approval and review of our products;

  • • the impact on our business of interruptions in our manufacturing processes;

  • • our dependence on a limited number of sources for certain of our finished products and raw materials;

  • • the effect of changes in inventory levels or fluctuations in buying patterns by our large distributor and retail customers;

  • • our ability to comply with applicable laws and regulations and prevail in any litigation related to noncompliance;

  • • the impact that reforms of the health care system may have on our ability to sell our products profitably;

  • • our ability to comply with environmental laws and regulations and environmental remediation obligations;

  • • the potential adverse effect of shareholder activism;

  • • the impact on our profitability from the potential impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets;

  • • the breakdown, interruption, breach or other compromise of our information technology systems;

  • • our ability to effectively monitor and respond to expectations regarding environmental, social and governance matters;

  • • the restatement of our previously issued financial statements and potential exposure to additional risks therefrom;

  • • the decline in pricing and/or volume of our products in our distribution agreements with other companies;

  • • the illegal distribution and sale of counterfeit versions of our products;

  • • the reduction of profits due to imports from countries where our products are available at lower prices;

  • • the reduction of revenues in future fiscal periods due to our policies regarding returns, allowances, and chargebacks;

  • • the decline in sales volumes or prices of our products as the result of the concentration of sales to wholesalers;

  • • our potential obligations under our indemnity agreements and arrangements; and

  • • the fluctuation of our operating results and financial condition from quarter to quarter.

Risk Relating to COVID-19

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the rapidly evolving reaction of governments, private sector participants and the public to that pandemic and/or the associated economic impact of the pandemic and the reactions to it, could adversely and materially impact our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

In December 2019, a novel strain of the coronavirus disease, COVID-19, was identified in Wuhan, China. Since then, COVID-19 has spread to other parts of the world, including the United States, Canada and Europe, and was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. The pandemic and the rapidly evolving reaction of governments, private sector participants and the public in an effort to contain the spread of COVID-19 and/or address its impacts have intensified and have had significant direct and indirect effects on businesses and commerce generally, including disruption to supply chains, employee base and transactional activity, facilities closures and production suspensions, and significantly increased demand for certain goods and services, such as pandemic-related medical services and supplies, alongside decreased demand for others, such as retail, hospitality, travel and elective surgery.

As a result of the impact of COVID-19, we have experienced delays in and postponement of our clinical trial programs and reduced demand for certain of our products due to the deferral of elective medical procedures and of doctor and dentistvisits. We expect to continue to experience those effects as a result of the pandemic, the reactions of governments, private sector participants and the public to the pandemic and the associated disruption to business and commerce generally.

In addition, as a result of these factors, we may experience additional disruptions that could materially impact our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. For example, we may experience:

  • • material closures or disruptions to our manufacturing sites (for example, we experienced closures at our Milan, Bothell, Washington USA sites and our two sites in China in 2020);

  • • lack of availability of active pharmaceutical ingredients ("API"), and intermediates, or other supply chain disruptions, including for some of our key products;

  • • alternative working arrangements, including personnel working remotely and additional cleaning or sterilization protocols at our production facilities, which could negatively impact our business should such arrangements remain for an extended period of time;

  • • interruption or delays in the operations of the FDA, the EMA and other regulatory authorities, which may impact review and approval timelines for our planned trials and launches;

  • • delays or difficulties in enrolling patients in our clinical trials;

  • • delays or difficulties in clinical site initiation, including difficulties in recruiting clinical site investigators and clinical site staff;

  • • diversion of health care resources away from the conduct of clinical trials, including the diversion of hospitals serving as our clinical trial sites and hospital staff supporting the conduct of our clinical trials;

  • • interruption or postponement of key clinical trial activities, such as clinical trial site data monitoring, due to limitations on travel imposed or recommended by federal or state governments, employers and others or interruption of clinical trial subject visits and study procedures, which may impact the integrity of subject data and clinical study endpoints;

  • • limitations on employee resources that would otherwise be focused on our business and operations, such as the conduct of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, including because of sickness of employees or their families or the desire of employees to avoid contact with large groups of people;

  • • delays in or postponements of our clinical trial programs as a result of "stay at home" orders affecting our research facilities or the closure of such research facilities, which may impact the timing, approval and launch of the affected clinical trial programs;

  • • deferral of elective medical procedures and of doctor and dentist visits, and reduced usage of contact lens, which may reduce demand for certain of the Company's products, including our contact lens products and certain branded pharmaceutical products in our eye-care, dermatology, GI and dentistry businesses; and

  • • adverse effects on the regional economies in which we operate which could reduce demand for certain of the Company's products.

The extent and duration of the pandemic, the reactions of governments, private sector participants and the public to that pandemic and the associated disruption to business and commerce generally, and the extent to which these may impact our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations in particular, will depend on future developments which are highly uncertain and many of which are outside our control and cannot be predicted with confidence. Such developments include the ultimate geographic spread and duration of the pandemic, the availability and effectiveness of vaccines for COVID-19, new information which may emerge concerning the severity of COVID-19, the effectiveness and intensity of measures to contain COVID-19 and/or address its impacts, and the economic impact of the pandemic and the reactions to it. Such developments, among others, depending on their nature, duration and intensity, could have a significant adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and may exacerbate other risk factors disclosed in this Item 1A. "Risk Factors."

Developments such as those described above, among others, depending on their nature, duration and intensity, could have a significant adverse effect on the Company's business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

Risk Relating to the Separation

Our plan to separate our eye-health business into an independent publicly traded entity from the remainder of the Company is subject to various risks and uncertainties and may not be completed in accordance with the expected plans or anticipatedtimeline, or at all, and will involve significant time, expense, and distraction, which could disrupt or have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

On August 6, 2020, we announced that we intend to separate our eye-health business into an independent publicly traded entity from the remainder of Bausch Health Companies Inc. (the "Separation"). The Separation will establish two separate companies that include: (i) a fully integrated eye-health company which will consist of our Bausch + Lomb Global Vision Care, Global Surgical, Global Consumer and Global Ophthalmology Rx businesses and (ii) a diversified pharmaceutical company which will include our Salix, International Rx, Solta, neurology and medical dermatology pharmaceutical businesses. The anticipated Separation is subject to regulatory approvals and certain conditions, including final approval by the Company's Board of Directors, any shareholder vote requirements that may be applicable, compliance with (including completion of all necessary filings required by) U.S. and Canadian securities laws and stock exchange rules, receipt of any applicable opinions and/or rulings with respect to the Canadian and U.S. federal income tax treatment of the Separation and determination of the pro forma capitalizations of the two separate companies. The failure to satisfy all of the required conditions could delay the completion of the Separation for a significant period of time or prevent it from occurring at all.

Unanticipated developments, including disruptions to business and commerce induced by the COVID-19 pandemic, changes in market conditions, possible delays in obtaining any necessary shareholder, stock exchange, regulatory or other approval or the failure to obtain any such approvals, possible delays in obtaining any required tax opinions or rulings or the failure to obtain any such tax opinions or rulings, negotiating challenges, the uncertainty of the financial markets, changes in the law, and other challenges in executing the Separation, could delay or prevent the completion of the Separation, or cause the Separation to occur on terms or conditions that are different or less favorable than expected. While we anticipate that we will be able to complete the internal organizational design and structure of the Bausch + Lomb entity by the end of 2021, we will need to complete a number of additional steps that will depend on the ultimate structure of the transaction (in addition to obtaining the regulatory approvals and satisfying the conditions described above) before we can complete the Separation. Any changes to the Separation or delay in completing the Separation could cause us not to realize some or all of the expected benefits, or realize them on a different timeline than expected. Further, our Board of Directors could decide, either because of a failure to satisfy conditions or because of market or other factors, to abandon the Separation. No assurance can be given as to whether and when the Separation will occur or whether the Separation will achieve the benefits we expect. As a result, there can be no assurance as to the timing of the completion of the Separation or its terms, and, the information in this Form 10-K relating to the Separation is preliminary and may change as the transaction progresses and any such change may be material.

Executing the Separation will require significant resources, time and attention from our senior management and employees, which could cause distractions and divert attention and resources away from other projects and the day-to-day operation of our business. We may also experience increased difficulties in attracting, retaining, and motivating management and employees during the pendency of the Separation and following its completion. The Separation, whether or not completed, may also have an adverse impact on our relationships with our customers, suppliers and other business counterparties.

We have already incurred expenses in connection with the Separation, and expect that the process of completing the Separation will be time-consuming and involve significant additional costs and expenses, which may not yield a discernible benefit if the Separation is not completed. In addition, if the Separation is not completed, we will still be required to pay certain costs and expenses incurred in connection therewith, such as legal, accounting, and other professional and advisory fees. Furthermore, the Separation, if completed, may result in potential dyssynergy costs, which may be greater than we anticipate and/or may be significant.

Any of the above factors could cause the Separation (or the failure to consummate the Separation) to have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Legal and Reputational Risks

We are the subject of a number of ongoing legal proceedings, investigations and inquiries respecting certain of our historical distribution, marketing, pricing, disclosure and accounting practices, including our former relationship with Philidor, which have had and could continue to have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations, could result in additional claims and material liabilities, and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

While we have successfully settled or otherwise resolved a number of legacy legal proceedings, investigations and inquiries relating to, among other things, our disclosure and accounting practices and our former relationship with Philidor, including the securities class action litigation matters in both the U.S. and Canada, the investigation by the SEC and the investigation order from the Autorité des marches financiers (the "AMF") (our principal securities regulator in Canada), we arecurrently still the subject of a number of other ongoing legal proceedings and investigations and inquiries by governmental agencies, including, but not limited to, the following: (i) a number of pending securities litigations, including certain opt-out actions in the U.S. (related to the U.S. Securities class action which has been settled, but remains subject to an objector's appeal of the final court approval), and in Canada (related to the securities class action litigation in Canada which has been settled), have been instituted, the allegations of which relate to, among other things, allegedly false and misleading statements by the Company and/or failures to disclose information about our business and prospects, including relating to drug pricing, our policies and accounting practices, our use of specialty pharmacies, and our former relationship with Philidor and (ii) purported class actions under the federal RICO statute on behalf of third-party payors arising out of our pricing and use of specialty pharmacies, and our former relationship with Philidor. In addition, we could, in the future, face additional legal proceedings and investigations and inquiries by governmental agencies relating to these or similar matters. For more information regarding legal proceedings, see Note 20, "LEGAL PROCEEDINGS" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements.

We are unable to predict how long such proceedings, investigations and inquiries will continue, but we anticipate that we will continue to incur significant costs in connection with some or all of these matters and that some or all of these proceedings, investigations and inquiries will result in a substantial distraction of management's time, regardless of the outcome. Some or all of these proceedings, investigations and inquiries will likely result in damages, settlement payments (such as the $1,210 million payment to be made by the Company in connection with the previously settled U.S. Securities class action (subject to an objector's appeal of the final court approval)), fines, penalties, consent orders or other administrative sanctions (including exclusion from federal programs) against the Company and/or certain of our directors and officers, any of which could be material, or in changes to our business practices, which, in turn, may result in or may contribute to an inability by us to meet the financial covenant contained in our Restated Credit Agreement. Furthermore, publicity surrounding these proceedings, investigations and inquiries or any enforcement action as a result thereof, even if ultimately resolved favorably for us could result in additional investigations and legal proceedings. As a result, these proceedings, investigations and inquiries could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Our historical business practices, including with respect to past pricing practices, are under scrutiny. Any changes to our practices relating to pricing or the current prices of products, whether imposed, legislated or voluntary, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

We are under scrutiny with respect to our historical business practices (including with respect to past pricing practices), including various securities litigations, including certain opt-out actions in the U.S. (related to the previously settled securities class action (subject to an objector's appeal of the final court approval)) and in Canada (related to the recently settled securities class action), and purported class actions under the federal RICO statute on behalf of third-party payors. We are unable to predict how such proceedings, investigations and inquiries will impact our current business practices, including with respect to pricing, or the prices of our products, including whether we will be required to impose pricing freezes or controls, pricing reductions (including on a retroactive basis) or other price regulation for some or all of our products.

In addition, in recent years, in the U.S., state and federal governments have considered implementing legislation that would control or regulate the prices of drugs. Other countries have announced or implemented measures on pricing, including suspensions on price increases, prospective and possibly retroactive price reductions and other recoupments. These measures and proposed measures vary by country. These measures and these proposed measures and legislation, if implemented, could lead to impairment of certain of our intangible assets which could be significant, and/or could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

We are involved in various other legal and governmental proceedings that are uncertain, costly and time-consuming and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

We are involved in a number of other legal and governmental proceedings and may be involved in additional litigation in the future. These proceedings are complex and extended and occupy the resources of our management and employees. These proceedings are also costly to prosecute and defend and may involve substantial awards or damages payable by us if not found in our favor. We may also be required to pay substantial amounts or grant certain rights on unfavorable terms in order to settle such proceedings. Defending against or settling such claims and any unfavorable legal decisions, settlements or orders could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline. For more information regarding legal proceedings, see Note 20, "LEGAL PROCEEDINGS" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements.

For example, the pharmaceutical industry, including our Company, has been the focus of both private payor and governmental concern regarding pricing of pharmaceutical products. Related actions, including Congressional and other governmental investigations and litigation, are costly and time-consuming, and adverse resolution of such actions or changes in our business practices, such as our approach to the pricing of our pharmaceutical products, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Further, the pharmaceutical and medical device industries historically have generated substantial litigation concerning the manufacture, use and sale of products and we expect this litigation activity to continue. As a result, we expect that patents related to our products will be routinely challenged, and the validity or enforceability of our patents may not be upheld. In order to protect or enforce patent rights, we may initiate litigation against third parties. Our patents may also be challenged in administrative proceedings in the United States Patent and Trademark Office and patent offices outside of the United States. If we are not successful in defending an attack on our patents and maintaining exclusive rights to market one or more of our products still under patent protection, we could lose a significant portion of sales in a very short period. We may also become subject to infringement claims by third parties and may have to defend against charges that we infringed or otherwise violated patents or the intellectual property or proprietary rights of third parties. If we infringe or otherwise violate the intellectual property rights of others, we could lose our right to develop, manufacture or sell products, including our generic products, or could be required to pay monetary damages or royalties to license proprietary rights from third parties, which could be substantial.

In addition, in the U.S., it has become increasingly common for patent infringement actions to prompt claims that antitrust laws have been violated during the prosecution of the patent or during litigation involving the defense of that patent. Such claims by direct and indirect purchasers and other payers are typically filed as class actions. The relief sought may include treble damages and restitution claims. Similarly, antitrust claims may be brought by government entities or private parties following settlement of patent litigation, alleging that such settlements are anti-competitive and in violation of antitrust laws. In the U.S. and Europe, regulatory authorities have continued to challenge as anti-competitive so-called "reverse payment" settlements between branded and generic drug manufacturers. We may also be subject to other antitrust litigation involving competition claims unrelated to patent infringement and prosecution. For more information regarding legal proceedings, see Note 20, "LEGAL PROCEEDINGS" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements. A successful antitrust claim by a private party or government entity against us could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

We depend on third parties to meet their contractual, legal, regulatory, and other obligations.

We rely on distributors, suppliers, contract research organizations, vendors, service providers, business partners and other third parties to research, develop, manufacture, distribute, market and sell many of our products, as well as perform other services relating to our business. We rely on these third parties to meet their contractual, legal, regulatory and other obligations. A failure to maintain these relationships or poor performance by these third parties could negatively impact our business. In addition, we cannot guarantee that the contractual terms and protections and compliance controls, policies and procedures we have put in place will be sufficient to ensure that such third parties will meet their legal, contractual and regulatory obligations or that these terms, controls, policies, procedures and other protections will protect us from acts committed by our agents, contractors, distributors, suppliers, service providers or business partners that violate contractual obligations or the laws or regulations of the jurisdictions in which we operate, including matters respecting anti-corruption, fraud, kickbacks and false claims, pricing, sales and marketing practices, privacy laws and other legal obligations. Any failure of such third parties to meet these legal, contractual and regulatory obligations or any improper actions by such third parties or even allegations of such non-compliance or actions could damage our reputation, adversely impact our ability to conduct business in certain markets and subject us to civil or criminal legal proceedings and regulatory investigations, monetary and non-monetary damages and penalties and could cause us to incur significant legal and investigatory fees and, as a result, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline. For example, the allegations about the activities of Philidor and our former relationship with Philidor have resulted in a number of investigations, inquiries and legal proceedings against us, which may damage our reputation and result in damages, fines, penalties or administrative sanctions against the Company and/or certain of our officers. For more information regarding legal proceedings, see Note 20, "LEGAL PROCEEDINGS" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements.

If our products cause, or are alleged to cause, serious or widespread personal injury, we may have to withdraw those products from the market and/or incur significant costs, including payment of substantial sums in damages, and we may besubject to exposure relating to product liability claims. In addition, our product liability self-insurance program may not be adequate to cover future losses.

We face an inherent business risk of exposure to significant product liability and other claims in the event that the use of our products caused, or is alleged to have caused, adverse effects. These product liability proceedings may be costly to prosecute and defend and may involve substantial awards or damages payable by us if not found in our favor.

Furthermore, our products may cause, or may appear to have caused, adverse side effects (including death) or potentially dangerous drug interactions that we may not learn about or understand fully until the drug has been administered to patients for some time. The withdrawal of a product following complaints and/or incurring significant costs, including the requirement to pay substantial damages in personal injury cases or product liability cases, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

In addition, since March 31, 2014, we have self-insured substantially all of our product liability risk for claims arising after that date. We periodically evaluate and adjust our claims reserves to reflect trends in our own experience, as well as industry trends. However, historical loss trends may not be adequate to cover future losses, as historical trends may not be indicative of future losses. If ultimate results exceed our estimates, this would result in losses in excess of our reserved amounts. If we were required to pay a significant amount on account of these liabilities for which we self-insure, this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Our marketing, promotional and business practices, as well as the manner in which sales forces interact with purchasers, prescribers and patients, are subject to extensive regulation and any material failure to comply could result in significant sanctions against us.

The marketing, promotional and business practices of pharmaceutical and medical device companies, as well as the manner in which companies' in-house or third-party sales forces interact with purchasers, prescribers, and patients, are subject to extensive regulation, enforcement of which may result in the imposition of civil and/or criminal penalties, injunctions, and/or limitations on marketing practice for some of our products and/or pricing restrictions or mandated price reductions for some of our products. Many companies, including us, have been the subject of claims related to these practices asserted by federal authorities. These claims have resulted in fines and other consequences, such as entering into corporate integrity agreements with the U.S. government. Companies may not promote drugs for "off-label" uses-that is, uses that are not described in the product's labeling and that differ from those approved by the FDA, Health Canada, EMA or other applicable regulatory agencies. A company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant liability, including civil and administrative remedies (such as entering into corporate integrity agreements with the U.S. government), as well as criminal sanctions. In addition, management's attention could be diverted from our business operations and our reputation could be damaged. For more information regarding legal proceedings, see Note 20, "LEGAL PROCEEDINGS" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements.

Debt-related Risks

Our Restated Credit Agreement and the indentures governing our senior notes impose restrictive covenants on us. Our failure to comply with these covenants could trigger events, which could result in the acceleration of the related debt, a cross-default or cross-acceleration to other debt, foreclosure upon any collateral securing the debt and termination of any commitments to lend, each of which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and would cause the market value of our common shares and/or securities to decline and could lead to bankruptcy or liquidation.

Our Restated Credit Agreement and the various indentures governing our senior notes contain covenants that restrict the way we conduct business and require us to satisfy certain financial tests in order to incur debt or take other actions. For example, our Restated Credit Agreement contains a financial covenant that requires us to maintain a certain financial ratio at fiscal quarter end.

The Company's Restated Credit Agreement contains a specified quarterly financial maintenance covenant (consisting of a first lien leverage ratio). As of December 31, 2020, we were in compliance with this financial maintenance covenant. However, we can make no assurance that we will be able to comply with the restrictive covenants contained in the Restated Credit Agreement and indentures in the future. Based on our current forecast for the next twelve months from the date of issuance of this Form 10-K, we expect to remain in compliance with this financial maintenance covenant and meet our debt obligations over that same period. In the event that we perform below our forecasted levels, we may also implement certain additional cost-efficiency initiatives, such as rationalization of selling, general and administrative expenses ("SG&A") and R&D spend, which would allow us to continue to comply with the financial maintenance covenant. The Company may consider taking otheractions, including divesting other businesses, refinancing debt, issuing equity or equity-linked securities as deemed appropriate, to provide additional coverage in complying with the financial maintenance covenant and meeting its debt service obligations, or may negotiate with the applicable lenders for an amendment or modification to such covenant, as deemed appropriate. However, we cannot guarantee that any of the above-noted actions would be achieved. If we perform below our forecasted levels and the actions referenced above are not effective, we would fail to comply with our financial maintenance covenant. In that instance, we would be in default, and our lenders would be permitted to accelerate our debt unless we could obtain an amendment. If our debt was accelerated, we would not have sufficient funds to repay our debt absent a refinancing, and we cannot provide assurance that we would be able to obtain a refinancing.

Our inability to comply with the covenants in our debt instruments could lead to a default or an event of default under the terms thereof, for which we may need to seek relief from our lenders and noteholders in order to waive the associated default or event of default and avoid a potential acceleration of the related indebtedness or cross-default or cross-acceleration to other debt. There can be no assurance that we would be able to obtain such relief on commercially reasonable terms or otherwise and we may be required to incur significant additional costs. In addition, the lenders under our Restated Credit Agreement and holders of our senior notes may impose additional operating and financial restrictions on us as a condition to granting any such waiver. If an event of default is not cured or is not otherwise waived, a majority of lenders in principal amount under our Restated Credit Agreement or the trustee or holders of at least 25% in principal amount of a series of our senior notes may accelerate the maturity of the related debt under these agreements, foreclose upon any collateral securing the debt and terminate any commitments to lend, any of which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and would cause the market value of our securities to decline. Furthermore, under these circumstances, we may not have sufficient funds or other resources to satisfy all of our obligations and we may be unable to obtain alternative financing on terms acceptable to us or at all. In such circumstances, we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation and, as a result, investors could lose all or a portion of their investment in our securities.

To service our debt, we will be required to generate a significant amount of cash. Our ability to generate cash depends on a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control, and any failure to meet our debt obligations would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

We have a significant amount of indebtedness. For details regarding our debt and the maturity dates thereof, see Note 10, "FINANCING ARRANGEMENTS" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements. Our ability to satisfy our debt obligations will depend principally upon our future operating performance. As a result, prevailing economic conditions and financial, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control, may affect our ability to make payments on our debt. If we do not generate sufficient cash flow to satisfy our debt obligations, we may have to undertake alternative financing plans, such as refinancing or restructuring our debt, selling assets, reducing or delaying capital investments or seeking to raise additional capital. Alternatively, as we have done in the past, we may also elect to refinance certain of our debt, for example, to extend maturities. Our ability to restructure or refinance our debt will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. If we are unable to access the capital markets, whether because of the condition of those capital markets or our own financial condition or reputation within such capital markets, we may be unable to refinance our debt. In addition, any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations. Further, given our capital structure, any refinancing of our senior unsecured debt may be with secured debt, thereby increasing our first lien and/or secured leverage ratios. Our inability to generate sufficient cash flow to satisfy our debt obligations or to refinance our obligations on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Repayment of our indebtedness is dependent on the generation of cash flow by our subsidiaries and their ability to make such cash available to us, by dividend, debt repayment or otherwise. Our subsidiaries may not be able to, or may not be permitted to, make distributions to enable us to make payments in respect of our indebtedness. Each subsidiary is a distinct legal entity and, under certain circumstances, legal and contractual restrictions may limit our ability to obtain cash from our subsidiaries. Certain subsidiaries include non-U.S. subsidiaries that may be prohibited by law or other regulations from distributing funds to us and/or we may be subject to payment of taxes and withholdings on such distributions. In the event that we do not receive distributions from our subsidiaries or receive cash via services rendered, loans and intellectual property licensed, we may be unable to make required principal and interest payments on our indebtedness.

Our ability to continue to reduce our indebtedness will depend upon factors including our future operating performance, our ability to access the capital markets to refinance existing debt and prevailing economic conditions and financial, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. We can provide no assurance of the amount by which we will reduce our debt, if at all. In addition, servicing our debt will result in a reduction in the amount of our cash flow available for otherpurposes, including operating costs and capital expenditures that could improve our competitive position and results of operations.

We have incurred significant indebtedness, which restricts the manner in which we conduct business.

We have incurred significant indebtedness, including in connection with our prior acquisitions. We may incur additional long-term debt and working capital lines of credit to meet future financing needs, subject to certain restrictions and prohibitions under the agreements governing our indebtedness, which would increase our total debt. This additional debt may be substantial and some of this indebtedness may be secured.

The agreements governing our indebtedness contain restrictive covenants which impose certain limitations on the way we conduct our business, including limitations on the amount of additional debt we are able to incur, prohibitions on incurring additional debt if certain financial covenants are not met and restrictions on our ability to make certain investments and other restricted payments. Any additional debt, to the extent we are able to incur it, may further restrict the manner in which we conduct business. Such restrictions, prohibitions and limitations could impact our ability to implement elements of our strategy, including in the following ways:

  • ▪ our flexibility to plan for, or react to, competitive challenges in our business and the pharmaceutical and medical device industries may be compromised;

  • ▪ we may be put at a competitive disadvantage relative to competitors that do not have as much debt as we have, and competitors that may be in a more favorable position to access additional capital resources;

  • ▪ our ability to make acquisitions and execute business development activities through acquisitions will be limited and may, in future years, continue to be limited; and

  • ▪ our ability to resolve regulatory and litigation matters may be limited.

In the past, our credit ratings have been downgraded. Any further downgrade in our corporate credit ratings or other credit ratings may increase our cost of borrowing and may negatively impact our ability to raise additional debt capital.

We are exposed to risks related to interest rates.

Our senior secured credit facilities bear interest based on U.S. dollar London Interbank Offering Rates or U.S. Prime Rate, or Federal Funds effective rate (for U.S. dollar loans) and Canadian Prime Rate or Canada Bankers' Acceptance Rate (for Canadian dollar loans). Thus, a change in the short-term interest rate environment (especially a material change) could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations (which adverse effect could be material) and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline. As of December 31, 2020, we did not have any outstanding interest rate swap contracts.

In July 2017, the head of the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority announced the desire to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. In November 2020, ICE Benchmark Administration Limited, the administrator of LIBOR, announced that it will consult on its intention to cease the publication of the one week and two month USD LIBOR settings immediately following the LIBOR publication on December 31, 2021 and the remaining USD LIBOR settings immediately following the LIBOR publication on June 30, 2023. If LIBOR ceases to exist, we will need to endeavor, with the administrative agent thereunder, to amend the credit facilities to substitute LIBOR with an alternative rate of interest that gives due consideration to the then-prevailing market convention for syndicated loans in the U.S., subject to notice to all lenders and the absence of objection by the "required lenders," or pay interest based on the "base rate" until we can otherwise renegotiate our Senior Secured Credit Facilities to include a LIBOR replacement. Any change in accordance with the aforementioned procedures, or the conversion of loans to base rate or U.S. prime rate loans, could have an adverse impact on our cost of capital. Currently, there is no definitive information regarding the future utilization of LIBOR or of any particular replacement rate. As such, the potential effect of any such event on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations cannot yet be determined. However, any such event could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results from operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Employment-related Risks

The loss of the services of, or our inability to recruit, retain or motivate, our executives and other key employees could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

We must continue to retain and motivate our executives and other key employees, and to recruit other executives and employees, in order to strengthen our management team and workforce. Our ability to retain or recruit executive and other key employees may be hindered or delayed by, among other things, competition from other employers who may be able to offer more attractive compensation packages or the reputational challenges the Company faces as a result of historical issues and mayin the future continue to face. A failure by us to retain, motivate and recruit executives and other key employees or the unanticipated loss of the services of any of these executives or key employees for any reason, whether temporary or permanent, could create disruptions in our business, could cause concerns and instability for management and employees, current and potential customers, credit rating agencies and other third parties with whom we do business and our shareholders and debt holders and could cause concern regarding our ability to execute our business strategy or to manage operations in the manner previously conducted and, as a result, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline. Furthermore, as a result of any failure to retain, or loss of, any executives or key employees, we may experience increased costs in order to identify and recruit a suitable replacement in a timely manner (and, even if we are able to hire a qualified successor, the search process and transition period may be difficult to manage and result in additional periods of uncertainty), which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline. In addition, once identified and recruited, the transition of new executives and key employees may be difficult to manage and we cannot guarantee that new executives and employees will efficiently transition into their roles or ultimately be successful in their roles. Finally, as a result of changes in our executives and key employees, there may be changes in the way we conduct our business, as well as changes to our business strategy. We cannot predict what these changes may involve or the timing of any such changes and how they will impact our product sales, revenue, business, financial condition, cash flows or results of operations, but any such changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Tax-related Risks

Our effective tax rates may increase.

We have operations in various countries that have differing tax laws and rates. Our tax reporting is supported by current domestic tax laws in the countries in which we operate and the application of tax treaties between the various countries in which we operate. Our income tax reporting is subject to audit by domestic and foreign authorities. Our effective tax rate may change from year to year based on changes in the mix of activities and income earned among the different jurisdictions in which we operate; changes in tax laws in these jurisdictions; changes in the tax treaties between various countries in which we operate; changes in our eligibility for benefits under those tax treaties; and changes in the estimated values of deferred tax assets and liabilities. Tax laws, regulations, and administrative practices in various jurisdictions may be subject to significant change, with or without notice, due to economic, political, and other conditions, and significant judgment is required in evaluating and estimating our provision and accruals for these taxes. Such changes could result in a substantial increase in the effective tax rate on all or a portion of our income.

Our provision for income taxes is based on certain estimates and assumptions made by management. Our consolidated income tax rate is affected by the amount of pre-tax income earned in our various operating jurisdictions, the availability of benefits under tax treaties, and the rates of taxes payable in respect of that income. We enter into many transactions and arrangements in the ordinary course of business in respect of which the tax treatment is not entirely certain. We therefore make estimates and judgments based on our knowledge and understanding of applicable tax laws and tax treaties, and the application of those tax laws and tax treaties to our business, in determining our consolidated tax provision. For example, certain countries could seek to tax a greater share of income than we will allocate to our business in such countries. The final outcome of any audits by taxation authorities may differ from the estimates and assumptions that we may use in determining our consolidated tax provisions and accruals. This could result in a material adverse effect on our consolidated income tax provision, financial condition and the net income for the period in which such determinations are made.

Our deferred tax liabilities, deferred tax assets and any related valuation allowances are affected by events and transactions arising in the ordinary course of business, acquisitions of assets and businesses, and non-recurring items. The assessment of the appropriate amount of a valuation allowance against the deferred tax assets is dependent upon several factors, including estimates of the realization of deferred income tax assets, which realization will be primarily based on future taxable income, including the reversal of existing taxable temporary differences. Significant judgment is applied to determine the appropriate amount of valuation allowance to record. Changes in the amount of any valuation allowance required could materially increase or decrease our provision for income taxes in a given period.

See Note 17, "INCOME TAXES" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements.

Risks Relating to Intellectual Property and Exclusivity

Products representing a significant amount of our revenue are not protected by patent or marketing or data exclusivity rights or are nearing the end of their exclusivity period. In addition, we have faced generic competition in the past and expect to face additional generic competition in the future. Competitors (including generic and biosimilar competitors) of our products could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

A significant number of the products we sell either: (i) have no meaningful exclusivity protection via patent or marketing or data exclusivity rights or (ii) are protected by patents or regulatory exclusivity periods that will be expiring in the near future. These products represent a significant amount of our revenues (See Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Business Trends - Generic Competition and Loss of Exclusivity" in this Form 10-K for a list of some of these products). Without exclusivity protection, competitors and other third parties (including generics and biosimilars) face fewer barriers in introducing competing products. Upon the expiration or loss of patent exclusivity or regulatory exclusivity for our products or otherwise upon the introduction of generic, biosimilar or other competitors (which may be sold at significantly lower prices than our products), we could lose a significant portion of sales and market share of the applicable products in a very short period and, as a result, our revenues could be lower. In addition, the introduction of generic and biosimilar competitors may have a significant downward pressure on the pricing of our branded products which compete with such generics and biosimilars. Where we have the rights, we may elect to launch an authorized generic of such product (either ourselves or through a third party) prior to, upon or following generic entry, which may mitigate the anticipated decrease in product sales; however, even with the launch of an authorized generic, the decline in product sales of such product would still be expected to be significant, and the effect on our future revenues could be material. The introduction of competing products (including generic products and biosimilars) could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

We may fail to obtain, maintain, license, enforce or defend the intellectual property and proprietary rights required to conduct our business, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

We strive to acquire, maintain, enforce and defend patent, trademark and other intellectual property and proprietary protections over our products and the processes used to manufacture these products. However, we may not be successful in obtaining such protections, or the patent, trademark and other intellectual property and proprietary rights we do obtain may not be sufficient in breadth and scope to fully protect our products or prevent competing products, or such rights may be susceptible to third-party challenges, which could result in the loss of such intellectual property rights or the narrowing of scope of protection afforded by such rights. Our intellectual property and proprietary rights may also be circumvented by third parties. The failure to obtain, maintain, enforce or defend such intellectual property and proprietary rights, for any reason, could allow third parties to manufacture and sell products that compete with our products or may impact our ability to develop, manufacture and market our own products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

For certain of our products and manufacturing processes, we rely on trade secrets and other proprietary information, which we seek to protect, in part, by confidentiality and nondisclosure agreements with our employees, contractors, consultants, advisors and partners. We also seek to enter into agreements whereby such employees, contractors, consultants, advisors and partners assign to us the rights in any intellectual property they develop. We may not enter into such agreements with all applicable parties, such agreements may be breached or otherwise may not effectively prevent disclosure or misappropriation of such information, and disputes may still arise with respect to the ownership of intellectual property. In addition, third parties may independently develop the same or similar proprietary information. The disclosure of such proprietary information or the loss of such intellectual property and proprietary rights may impact our ability to develop, manufacture and market our own products or may assist competitors or other third parties in the development, manufacture and sale of competing products, which could have a material adverse effect on our revenues, financial condition, cash flows or results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

For a number of our commercialized products and pipeline products, including Xifaxan®, Siliq®, Lumify®, Plenvu®, Vyzulta®, Relistor®, Jublia® and the pipeline products that are the subject of our recently announced licenses with Eyenovia, Inc., Novaliq GmbH, BHVI and Clearside Biomedical, Inc., we rely on licenses to patents and other technologies, know-how and intellectual property and proprietary rights held by third parties. Any loss, expiration, termination or suspension of our rights to such licensed intellectual property would result in our inability to continue to develop, manufacture and market the applicable products or product candidates and, as a result, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline. In the future, we may also need to obtain additional licenses from third parties to develop, manufacture, market or continue to manufacture or market our products. If we are unable to timely obtain these licenses on commercially reasonable terms or at all, our ability to develop, manufacture and market our products may be inhibited or prevented, which could have amaterial adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Competitive Risks

We operate in extremely competitive industries. If competitors develop or acquire more effective or less costly pharmaceutical or OTC products or medical devices for our target indications, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

The pharmaceutical, OTC and medical device industries are extremely competitive. Our success and future growth depend, in part, on our ability to develop, license or acquire products that are more effective than those of our competitors or that incorporate the latest technologies and our ability to effectively manufacture and market those products. Many of our competitors, particularly larger pharmaceutical, OTC and medical device companies, have substantially greater financial, technical and human resources than we do. Many of our competitors spend significantly more on research and development related activities than we do. Others may succeed in developing or acquiring products and technologies that are more effective, more advanced or less costly than those currently marketed or proposed for development by us. In addition, academic institutions, government agencies and other public and private organizations conducting research may seek patent protection with respect to potentially competitive products and may also establish exclusive collaborative or licensing relationships with our competitors. These competitors and the introduction of competing products (that may be more effective or less costly than our products) could make our products less competitive or obsolete, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Risks Relating to Our Business Strategy

We have made commitments and public statements with respect to the cessation of or limitation on pricing increases for certain of our products. These pricing decisions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

In May 2016, we formed a new Patient Access and Pricing Committee responsible for the pricing of our drugs. The new committee's first action was a recommendation, which we implemented, for an enhanced rebate program to all hospitals in the U.S. to reduce the price of our Nitropress® and Isuprel® products. In addition, the Patient Access and Pricing Committee made a commitment that the average annual price increase for our branded prescription pharmaceutical products will be set at no greater than single digits. This commitment was reaffirmed for 2021. All future pricing actions will be subject to review by the Patient Access and Pricing Committee and we expect that the Patient Access and Pricing Committee will implement or recommend additional price changes and/or new programs to enhance patient access to our drugs.

At this time, we cannot predict what specific pricing changes the committee will make nor can we predict what other changes in our business practices we may implement with respect to pricing (such as imposing limits or prohibitions on the amount of pricing increases we may take on certain of our products or taking retroactive or future price reductions). We also cannot predict the impact such pricing decisions or changes will or would have on our business. However, any such changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

For example, any pricing changes and programs could affect the average realized prices for our products and may have a significant impact on our revenue trends. In addition, limiting or eliminating price increases on certain of our products will result in fewer or lower price appreciation credits from certain of our wholesalers. Price appreciation credits are generated when we increase a product's wholesaler acquisition cost ("WAC") under our contracts with certain wholesalers. Under such contracts, we are entitled to credits from such wholesalers for the impact of that WAC increase on inventory currently on hand at the wholesalers. In wholesaler contracts, such credits, which can be significant, are offset against the total distribution service fees we pay on all of our products to each wholesaler. As a result, to the extent we decide to cease or limit price increases, we will have fewer or lower price appreciation credits to use to offset against our distribution fees owing to these wholesalers. In addition, under certain of our agreements with our wholesaler customers, we have price protection or price depreciation provisions, pursuant to which we have agreed to adjust the value of any on-hand or in-transit inventory with such customers in the event we reduce the price of any of our products. As a result, to the extent we reduce the WAC price for any of our products, we may owe a payment to such customers (or such customers may earn a credit to be offset against any amounts owing to us) equal to the amount of such inventory multiplied by the difference between the price at which they acquired the product inventory and the new reduced price.

In prior years, we have undertaken a number of divestitures of certain of our assets and business. We may, in the future, seek to divest additional asset and/or businesses, some of which may be material and/or transformative, which could adversely affect our business, prospects and opportunities for growth.

In recent years, we have completed a number of divestitures of our assets, products or businesses that were not considered core to our ongoing operations or the needs of our primary-customer base, including the divestitures of our Obagi Medical Products business, our iNova Pharmaceuticals business, our Dendreon Pharmaceuticals subsidiary, our Sprout Pharmaceuticals subsidiary and the CeraVe®, AcneFree and AMBI® skincare brands. We may, in the future, seek to complete additional divestitures.

Each of these divestitures has been time-consuming and has diverted management's attention. As a result of these divestitures (and others we may in the future complete), we may experience lower revenue and lower cash flows from operations. In addition, as was the case with our sale of our Sprout Pharmaceuticals subsidiary, we may recognize a loss on sale in connection with such divestitures. We may also suffer adverse tax consequences as a result of such divestitures, including capital gains tax or the accelerated use of NOLs or other attributes. Furthermore, divesting certain of our businesses or assets may require us to incur restructuring charges, and we may not be able to achieve the cost savings that we expect from any such restructuring efforts or divestitures. Any such divestiture could reduce the size or scope of our business, our market share in particular markets, our opportunities with respect to certain markets, products or therapeutic categories or our ability to compete in certain markets and therapeutic categories. Furthermore, we will be required to use the net proceeds (or substantial portions thereof) from certain asset sales to repay the term loans under the Restated Credit Agreement, subject to certain reinvestment rights.

In addition, should we seek to divest other of our assets and business, we may be unable to dispose of such businesses and assets on satisfactory or commercially reasonable terms within our anticipated timeline. In addition, our ability to identify, enter into and/or consummate divestitures may be limited by competition we face from other companies in pursuing similar transactions in the pharmaceutical industry. Any divestiture or other disposition we pursue, whether we are able to complete it or not, may be complex, time consuming and expensive, may divert the management's attention, have a negative impact on our customer relationships, cause us to incur costs associated with maintaining the business of the targeted divestiture during the disposition process and also to incur costs of closing and disposing the affected business or transferring the operations of the business to other facilities. The divestiture process may also further expose us to operational inefficiencies. In addition, if such transactions are not completed for any reason, the market price of our common shares may reflect a market assumption that such transactions will occur, and a failure to complete such transactions could result in a negative perception by the market of us generally and a decline in the market price of our common shares.

As a result of these factors, any divestiture (whether or not completed) could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/ or debt securities to decline.

As part of our business strategy, we seek to identify and acquire certain assets, products and businesses.

Historically, part of our business strategy included acquiring and integrating complementary businesses, products, technologies or other assets. As part of our current business strategy, we again are seeking to complete certain acquisitions of assets, products and businesses, including by way of in-license arrangements, although not at the volume and pace that we did historically. Acquisitions or similar arrangements may be complex, time consuming and expensive. We may not consummate some negotiations for acquisitions or other arrangements, which could result in significant diversion of management and other employee time, as well as substantial out-of-pocket costs. In addition, there are a number of risks and uncertainties relating to our closing transactions. If such transactions are not completed for any reason, we will be subject to several risks, including the following: (i) the market price of our common shares may reflect a market assumption that such transactions will occur, and a failure to complete such transactions could result in a negative perception by the market of us generally and a decline in the market price of our common shares; and (ii) many costs relating to such transactions may be payable by us whether or not such transactions are completed.

If an acquisition is consummated, the integration of the acquired business, product or other assets into our Company may also be complex and time-consuming and, if such businesses, products and assets are not successfully integrated, we may not achieve the anticipated benefits, cost-savings or growth opportunities. Potential difficulties that may be encountered in the integration process include the following: integrating personnel, operations and systems, while maintaining focus on selling and promoting existing and newly-acquired products; coordinating geographically dispersed organizations; distracting management and employees from operations; retaining existing customers and attracting new customers; maintaining the business relationships the acquired company has established, including with health care providers; and managing inefficiencies associated with integrating the operations of the Company and the acquired business, product or other assets.

Furthermore, we may incur restructuring and integration costs and a number of non-recurring transaction costs associated with these acquisitions, combining the operations of the Company and the acquired company and achieving desired synergies. These fees and costs may be substantial. Non-recurring transaction costs include, but are not limited to, fees paid to legal, financial and accounting advisors, filing fees and printing costs. Additional unanticipated costs may be incurred in the integration of the businesses of the Company and the acquired company. There can be no assurance that the elimination of certain duplicative costs, as well as the realization of other efficiencies related to the integration of the acquired business, will offset the incremental transaction-related costs over time. Therefore, any net benefit may not be achieved in the near term, the long term or at all.

Finally, these acquisitions and other arrangements, even if successfully integrated, may fail to further our business strategy as anticipated or to achieve anticipated benefits and success, expose us to increased competition or challenges with respect to our products or geographic markets, and expose us to additional liabilities associated with an acquired business, product, technology or other asset or arrangement. Any one of these challenges or risks could impair our ability to realize any benefit from our acquisition or arrangement after we have expended resources on them.

If we fail to maintain our relationships with, and provide appropriate training in our products to, health care providers, including physicians, hospitals, large drug store chains, wholesale distributors, pharmacies, government entities and group purchasing organizations, customers may not buy certain of our products and our sales and profitability may decline.

We market our pharmaceutical products to physicians, hospitals, pharmacies and wholesalers through our own sales force and sell through wholesalers. In some markets, we additionally sell directly to physicians, hospitals and large drug store chains and we sell through distributors in countries where we do not have our own sales staff. We have developed and strive to maintain strong relationships with members of each of these groups who assist in product research and development and advise us on how to satisfy the full range of consumer needs. We rely on these groups to recommend our products to their patients and to other members of their organizations. Consumers in the pharmaceutical industry, particularly the contact lens and lens care customers in the eye-health industry, have a tendency not to switch products regularly and are repeat consumers. As a result, the success of certain of our products, particularly our vision care products, is impacted by a physician's initial recommendation of such products and a consumer's initial choice to use such products. As a result, the failure of certain of our products, particularly in our vision care business, to retain the support of pharmaceutical professionals, hospitals or group purchasing organizations and to retain the support of the end-users and the distributors and retailers to whom we sell such products, could have a material adverse effect on our sales and profitability.

Commercialization Risks

Our approved products may not achieve or maintain expected levels of market acceptance.

Even if we are able to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for our pharmaceutical and medical device products, generic or branded, the success of these products is dependent upon achieving and maintaining market acceptance. Launching and commercializing products is time consuming, expensive and unpredictable. The commercial launch of a product takes significant time, resources, personnel and expertise, which we may not have in sufficient levels to achieve success, and is subject to various market conditions, some of which may be beyond our control. There can be no assurance that we will be able to, either by ourselves or in collaboration with our partners or through our licensees or distributors, successfully launch and commercialize new products or gain market acceptance for such products. New product candidates that appear promising in development may fail to reach the market or may have only limited or no commercial success. While we have been successful in launching some of our products, we may not achieve the same level of success with respect to all of our new products. Our inability to successfully launch our new products may negatively impact the commercial success of such product, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline. Our inability to successfully launch our new products could also lead to material impairment charges.

Levels of market acceptance for our new products could be impacted by several factors, some of which are not within our control, including but not limited to the following:

  • ▪ safety, efficacy, convenience and cost-effectiveness of our products compared to products of our competitors;

  • ▪ scope of approved uses and marketing approval;

  • ▪ availability of patent or regulatory exclusivity;

  • ▪ timing of market approvals and market entry;

  • ▪ ongoing regulatory obligations following approval, such as the requirement to conduct a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy ("REMS") programs;

  • ▪ any restrictions or "black box" warnings required on the labeling of such products;

  • ▪ availability of alternative products from our competitors;

  • ▪ acceptance of the price of our products;

  • ▪ effectiveness of our sales forces and promotional efforts;

  • ▪ the level of reimbursement of our products;

  • ▪ acceptance of our products on government and private formularies;

  • ▪ ability to market our products effectively at the retail level or in the appropriate setting of care; and

  • ▪ the reputation of our products.

Further, the market perception and reputation of our products and their safety and efficacy are important to our business and the continued acceptance of our products. Any negative publicity about our products, such as the discovery of safety issues with our products, adverse events involving our products, or even public rumors about such events, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows or results of operation or could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline. In addition, the discovery of significant problems with a product similar to one of our products that implicate (or are perceived to implicate) an entire class of products or the withdrawal or recall of such similar products could have a material adverse effect on sales of our products. Accordingly, new data about our products, or products similar to our products, could cause us reputational harm and could negatively impact demand for our products due to real or perceived side effects or uncertainty regarding safety or efficacy and, in some cases, could result in product withdrawal.

If our products fail to gain, or lose, market acceptance, our revenues would be adversely impacted and we may be required to take material impairment charges, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

For certain of our products, we depend on reimbursement from governmental and other third-party payors and a reduction in reimbursement could reduce our product sales and revenue. In addition, failure to be included in formularies developed by managed care organizations and coverage by other organizations may negatively impact the utilization of our products, which could harm our market share and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Sales of certain of our products are dependent, in part, on the availability and extent of reimbursement from government health administration authorities, private health insurers, pharmacy benefit managers and other organizations of the costs of our products and the continued reimbursement and coverage of our products in such programs. Changes in government regulations or private third-party payors' reimbursement policies may reduce reimbursement for our products. In addition, such third-party payors may otherwise make the decision to reduce reimbursement of some or all our products or fail to cover some or all our products in such programs or assert that reimbursements were not in accordance with applicable requirements. For example, these decisions may be based on the price of our products or our current or former pricing practices and decisions. Any reduction or elimination of such reimbursement or coverage could result in a negative impact on the utilization of our products and, as a result, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Managed care organizations and other third-party payors try to negotiate the pricing of medical services and products to control their costs. Managed care organizations and pharmacy benefit managers typically develop formularies to reduce their cost for medications. Formularies can be based on the prices and therapeutic benefits of the available products. Due to their lower costs, generic products are often favored. The breadth of the products covered by formularies varies considerably from one managed care organization to another, and many formularies include alternative and competitive products for treatment of particular medical conditions. Failure to be included in such formularies or to achieve favorable formulary status may negatively impact the utilization and market share of our products. If our products are not included within an adequate number of formularies or adequate reimbursement levels are not provided, or if those policies increasingly favor generic products, this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Our fulfillment arrangements with Walgreens and our dermatology cash-pay prescription program may not be successful.

At the beginning of 2016, we launched a brand fulfillment arrangement with Walgreen Co. ("Walgreens"), pursuant to which we have made certain of our dermatology and ophthalmology products available to eligible patients through a patient access and co-pay program available at Walgreens U.S. retail pharmacy locations, as well as participating independent retail pharmacies. We have, in the past, experienced certain operational and other issues respecting this arrangement, including lower than anticipated average realized prices associated with these products through this arrangement. In July 2019, we entered into an amendment to the existing fulfillment agreement to address some of these issues. We cannot guarantee this arrangement will continue to be successful in the future, nor can we guarantee that additional operational issues will not be encountered, nor can we guarantee that we will be able to successfully negotiate with Walgreens any improvements or amendments to this arrangement we identify as necessary or desired. In addition, we cannot predict how the market, including customers, doctors,patients, pharmacy benefit managers and third-party payors, or governmental agencies, will continue to react to these arrangements and programs. If this arrangement or program fails, if they do not achieve sufficient success and market acceptance, if we face retaliation from third parties as a result of this arrangement and program (for example, in the form of limitations on or exclusions from the reimbursement of our products) or if any part of this arrangement is found to be non-compliant with applicable law or regulations, this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

In addition, in February 2019, we launched Dermatology.com, a cash-pay product acquisition program offering certain branded Ortho Dermatologics products directly to patients. In March 2020, the name Dermatology.com was removed as the cash-pay product program name, with the name Dermatology.com limited to only online usage, including future digital teledermatology and e-commerce offerings. This program is designed to address the affordability and availability of certain branded dermatology products, when insurers and pharmacy benefit managers are no longer offering those branded prescription pharmaceutical products under their designated pharmacy benefit offerings. We cannot guarantee that this program will be successful or that we will continue to add new products to the program. In addition, we cannot predict how the market, including customers, doctors and patients will react to this program. If this program fails, if it does not achieve sufficient success and market acceptance or if any part of this program is found to be non-compliant with applicable law or regulations, this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Risks Relating to the International Scope of our Business

Our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations are subject to risks arising from the international scope of our operations.

We conduct a significant portion of our business outside the U.S. and Canada and may, in the future, expand our operations into new countries, including emerging markets. We sell our pharmaceutical and medical device products in many countries around the world. All of our foreign operations are subject to risks inherent in conducting business abroad, including, among other things:

  • ▪ difficulties in coordinating and managing foreign operations, including ensuring that foreign operations comply with foreign laws as well as Canadian and U.S. laws applicable to Canadian companies with U.S. and foreign operations, such as export and sanctions laws and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA"), the Canadian Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act, and other applicable worldwide anti-bribery laws;

  • ▪ price and currency exchange controls;

  • ▪ restrictions on the repatriation of funds;

  • ▪ scarcity of hard currency, including the U.S. dollar, which may require a transfer or loan of funds to the operations in such countries, which they may not be able to repay on a timely basis;

  • ▪ political and economic instability;

  • ▪ compliance with multiple regulatory regimes;

  • ▪ compliance with economic sanctions laws and other laws that apply to our activities in the countries where we operate;

  • ▪ less established legal and regulatory regimes in certain jurisdictions, including as relates to enforcement of anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws and the reliability of the judicial systems;

  • ▪ differing degrees of protection for intellectual property;

  • ▪ unexpected changes in foreign regulatory requirements, including quality standards and other certification requirements;

  • ▪ new export license requirements;

  • ▪ adverse changes in tariff and trade protection measures;

  • ▪ differing labor regulations;

  • ▪ potentially negative consequences from changes in or interpretations of tax laws;

  • ▪ restrictive governmental actions;

  • ▪ possible nationalization or expropriation;

  • ▪ credit market uncertainty;

  • ▪ differing local practices, customs and cultures, some of which may not align or comply with our Company practices and policies or U.S. laws and regulations;

  • ▪ difficulties with licensees, contract counterparties, or other commercial partners; and

  • ▪ differing local product preferences and product requirements.

As a result of changes to U.S. policy, there may be changes to existing trade agreements and greater restrictions on trade generally. On November 30, 2018, the United States, Canada and Mexico signed the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement

("USMCA") as an overhaul and update to the North American Free Trade Agreement. It is difficult to anticipate the full impact of this agreement on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

Notwithstanding the USMCA, support for protectionism and rising anti-globalization sentiment in the United States and other countries may slow global growth. In particular, a protracted and wide-ranging trade conflict between the United States and China could adversely affect global economic growth. Concerns also remain around the social, political and economic impacts of the changing political landscape in Europe, including the final outcome of Brexit (as defined below) negotiations. In addition, there are growing concerns over an economic slowdown in emerging markets in light of capital outflows in favor of developed markets and expected interest rate increases. Broader geopolitical tensions remained high amongst the U.S., Russia, China, and across the Middle East.

Given the international scope of our operations, any of the above factors, including tariffs, trade wars and other governmental actions, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Similarly, adverse economic conditions impacting our customers in these countries or uncertainty about global economic conditions could cause purchases of our products to decline, which would adversely affect our revenues and operating results. Moreover, our projected revenues and operating results are based on assumptions concerning certain levels of customer spending. Any failure to attain our projected revenues and operating results as a result of adverse economic or market conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Due to the large portion of our business conducted in currency other than U.S. dollars, we have significant foreign currency risk.

We face foreign currency exposure on the translation into U.S. dollars of the financial results of our operations in Europe, Canada, Latin America, Asia, Africa and the Middle East and other regions. Where possible, we manage foreign currency risk by managing same currency revenue in relation to same currency expenses. We may also use derivative financial instruments from time to time to mitigate our foreign currency risk and not for trading or speculative purposes. We face foreign currency exposure in those countries where we have revenue denominated in the local foreign currency and expenses denominated in other currencies. Both favorable and unfavorable foreign currency impacts to our foreign currency-denominated operating expenses are mitigated to a certain extent by the natural, opposite impact on our foreign currency-denominated revenue. In addition, the repurchase of our U.S. dollar denominated debt may result in foreign exchange gains or losses for Canadian income tax purposes. One half of any foreign exchange gains or losses will be included in our Canadian taxable income. Any foreign exchange gain will result in a corresponding reduction in our available Canadian tax attributes. Further strengthening of the U.S. dollar and/or the devaluation of other countries' currencies could have a negative impact on our reported international revenue.

Development and Regulatory Risks

The successful development of our pipeline products is highly uncertain and requires significant expenditures and time. In addition, obtaining necessary government approvals is time-consuming and not assured. The failure to commercialize certain of our pipeline products could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

We currently have a number of pipeline products in development. We and our development partners, as applicable, conduct extensive preclinical studies and clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy in humans of our pipeline products in order to obtain regulatory approval for the sale of our pipeline products. Preclinical studies and clinical trials are expensive, complex, can take many years and have uncertain outcomes. None of, or only a small number of, our research and development programs may actually result in the commercialization of a product. We will not be able to commercialize our pipeline products if preclinical studies do not produce successful results or if clinical trials do not demonstrate safety and efficacy in humans. Furthermore, success in preclinical studies or early-stage clinical trials does not ensure that later stage clinical trials will be successful nor does it ensure that regulatory approval for the product candidate will be obtained. In addition, the process for the completion of pre-clinical and clinical trials is lengthy and may be subject to a number of delays for various reasons, which would delay the commercialization of any successful product. If our development projects are not successful or are significantly delayed, we may not recover our substantial investments in the pipeline product and our failure to bring these pipeline products to market on a timely basis, or at all, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

In addition, FDA and Health Canada approval must be obtained in the U.S. and Canada, respectively, EMA approval (drugs) and CE Marking (devices) must be obtained in countries in the EU and similar approvals must be obtained fromcomparable agencies in other countries, prior to marketing or manufacturing new pharmaceutical and medical device products for use by humans. Obtaining such regulatory approvals for new products and devices and manufacturing processes can take a number of years and involves the expenditure of substantial resources. Furthermore, the Trump administration took several executive actions, including the issuance of Executive Orders, that could impose significant burdens on, or otherwise materially delay, the FDA's ability to engage in routine regulatory and oversight activities such as issuance of guidance and review and approval of marketing applications. It is unclear how these executive actions will be implemented or whether they will be rescinded or replaced under the Biden administration, and therefore their effects on the FDA approval process cannot be determined at this time.

Even if such products appear promising in development stages, regulatory approval may not be achieved and no assurance can be given that we will obtain approval in those countries where we wish to commercialize such products. Nor can any assurance be given that if such approval is secured, the approved labeling will not have significant labeling limitations, including limitations on the indications for which we can market a product, or require onerous risk management programs. Furthermore, from time to time, changes to the applicable legislation or regulations may be introduced that change these review and approval processes for our products, which changes may make it more difficult and costly to obtain or maintain regulatory approvals.

Our marketed drugs will be subject to ongoing regulatory review.

Following initial regulatory approval of any products, we or our partners may develop or acquire, we will be subject to continuing regulatory review by various government authorities in those countries where our products are marketed or intended to be marketed, including the review of adverse drug events and clinical results that are reported after product candidates become commercially available. In addition, we are subject to ongoing audits and investigations of our facilities and products by the FDA, as well as other regulatory agencies in and outside the U.S.

If we fail to comply with the regulatory requirements in those countries where our products are sold, we could lose our marketing approvals or be subject to fines or other sanctions. Also, as a condition to granting marketing approval of a product, the applicable regulatory agencies may require a company to conduct additional clinical trials or remediate Current Good Manufacturing Practice ("CGMP") issues, the results of which could result in the subsequent loss of marketing approval, changes in product labeling or new or increased concerns about side effects or efficacy of a product.

In May 2017, the European Commission published the Medical Device Regulation (MDR) 2017/745, which replaced the Medical Device Directive (MDD). Pursuant to the terms of the new regulations, in order to continue to market medical device products in the EU, such products must achieve compliance with these new regulations and be re-registered in the EU within a specified transition period, which, for a portion of products, will end as early as May 26, 2021. These new regulations impact all of our existing and pipeline medical device products being sold in the EU for which we are legal manufacturer and/or distributor, including contact lens, lens care, eye-health, aesthetic and surgical areas, as well as certain of our products outside the EU, which rely on the EU registration to support registration in those other countries. These products, in the aggregate, account for a meaningful portion of our net revenue in this region. While we are working to ensure compliance with these new regulations for all impacted products, we may not be able to achieve compliance for all products within the applicable transition period. If we fail to achieve compliance, we will not be able to market and sell the non-compliant products in the EU, nor will we be able to rely on the non-compliant registration for such products in regions outside of the EU, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations in the EU and, possibly, on a consolidated basis, and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

In addition, incidents of adverse drug reactions, unintended side effects or misuse relating to our products could result in additional regulatory controls or restrictions, or even lead to the regulatory authority requiring us to withdraw the product from the market. Further, if faced with these incidents of adverse drug reactions, unintended side effects or misuse relating to our products, we may elect to voluntarily implement a recall or market withdrawal of our product. A recall or market withdrawal, whether voluntary or required by a regulatory authority, may involve significant costs to us, potential disruptions in the supply of our products to our customers and reputational harm to our products and business, all of which could harm our ability to market our products and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

The United Kingdom's exit from the European Union may impact the development and the regulatory approval and review of our products.

On June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom held a referendum on its membership in the European Union, in which United Kingdom voters approved an exit from the European Union ("Brexit"). On March 29, 2017, the United Kingdom formally notified the European Council pursuant to Article 50 of the Treaty of Lisbon of its intention to leave the European Union. On January 31, 2020 ("Exit Day"), the United Kingdom ceased to be a member state of the European Union. EU law applicable tothe United Kingdom continued to apply to and in the United Kingdom for the duration of a transition period which expired on December 31, 2020 (the "Transition Period"). During the Transition Period, the European Union and the United Kingdom negotiated the terms of their future relationship and on December 31, 2020 entered into a Trade and Cooperation Agreement, an Agreement on Nuclear Cooperation and an Agreement on Security Procedures for Exchanging and Protecting Classified Information. Subject to certain exceptions, domestic law derived from EU law, EU law directly applicable in the UK and EU rights, powers, liabilities and obligations recognized and available in the UK in each case immediately before the expiration of the Transition Period was retained by the UK, but in the future UK law may diverge from EU law. Following the Brexit vote, the European Union moved the European Medicines Agency's headquarters from the United Kingdom to the Netherlands, which could result in disruptions and delays in new drug approvals in the European Union. In addition, we could face new regulatory costs and challenges that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

Manufacturing and Supply Risks

If we or our third-party manufacturers are unable to manufacture our products or the manufacturing process is interrupted due to failure to comply with regulations or for other reasons, the interruption of the manufacture of our products could adversely affect our business. Other manufacturing and supply difficulties or delays may also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Our manufacturing facilities and those of our contract manufacturers must be inspected and found to be in full compliance with CGMP, quality system management requirements or similar standards before approval for marketing. Compliance with CGMP regulations requires the dedication of substantial resources and requires significant expenditures. In addition, while we attempt to build in certain contractual obligations on our third-party manufacturers, we may not be able to ensure that such third-parties comply with these obligations. Our failure or that of our contract manufacturers to comply with CGMP regulations, quality system management requirements or similar regulations outside of the U.S. could result in enforcement action by the FDA or its foreign counterparts, including, but not limited to, warning letters, fines, injunctions, civil or criminal penalties, recall or seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production or importation, suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approval for approved or in-market products, refusal of the government to renew marketing applications or approve pending applications or supplements, refusal of certificates for export to foreign jurisdictions, suspension of ongoing clinical trials, imposition of new manufacturing requirements, closure of facilities and criminal prosecution. These enforcement actions could lead to a delay or suspension in production, which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

In addition, our manufacturing and other processes use complicated and sophisticated equipment, which sometimes requires a significant amount of time to obtain and install. Manufacturing complexity, testing requirements and safety and security processes combine to increase the overall difficulty of manufacturing these products and resolving manufacturing problems that we may encounter. Although we endeavor to properly maintain our equipment (and require our contract manufacturers to properly maintain their equipment), including through on-site quality control and experienced manufacturing supervision, and have key spare parts on hand, our business could suffer if certain manufacturing or other equipment, or all or a portion of our or their facilities, were to become inoperable for a period of time. We could experience substantial production delays or inventory shortages in the event of any such occurrence until we or they repair such equipment or facility or we or they build or locate replacement equipment or a replacement facility, as applicable, and seek to obtain necessary regulatory approvals for such replacement. Any interruption in our manufacture of products could adversely affect the sales of our current products or introduction of new products and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

The supply of our products to our customers (or, in some cases, supply from our contract manufacturers to us) is subject to and dependent upon the use of transportation services. Disruption of transportation services (including as a result of weather conditions) could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline. In addition, any prolonged disruption in the operations of our existing distribution facilities, whether due to technical, labor or other difficulties, weather conditions, equipment malfunction, contamination, failure to follow specific protocols and procedures, destruction of or damage to any facility or other reasons, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

For some of our finished products and raw materials, we obtain supply from one or a limited number of sources. If we are unable to obtain components or raw materials, or products supplied by third parties, our ability to manufacture and deliver our products to the market would be impeded, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financialcondition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Some components and raw materials used in our manufactured products, and some finished products sold by us, are currently available only from one or a limited number of domestic or foreign suppliers. For example, with respect to some of our largest or most significant products, the supply of the finished product for each of our Siliq®, Duobrii®, Bryhali®, Lumify®, Trulance®, Vyzulta®, SofLens®, Wellbutrin XL®, Ocuvite®, PreserVision®, Renu®, Aplenzin®, Xenazine®, Relistor® Oral and PureVision® products are only available from a single source and the supply of active pharmaceutical ingredient for each of our Siliq®, Duobrii®, Bryhali®, Trulance®, Vyzulta®, Xenazine®, Aplenzin® and Relistor® Oral products are also only available from a single source. In the event an existing supplier fails to supply product on a timely basis and/or in the requested amount, supplies product that fails to meet regulatory requirements, becomes unavailable through business interruption or financial insolvency or loses its regulatory status as an approved source or we are unable to renew current supply agreements when such agreements expire and we do not have a second supplier, we may be unable to obtain the required components, raw materials or products on a timely basis or at commercially reasonable prices. We attempt to mitigate these risks by maintaining safety stock of these products, but such safety stock may not be sufficient. In addition, in some cases, only a single source of active pharmaceutical ingredient is identified in filings with regulatory agencies, including the FDA, and cannot be changed without prior regulatory approval, which would involve time and expense to us. A prolonged interruption in the supply of a single-sourced raw material, including the active pharmaceutical ingredient, or single-sourced finished product could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline. In addition, these third-party manufacturers may have the ability to increase the supply price payable by us for the manufacture and supply of our products, in some cases without our consent.

As a result, our dependence upon others to manufacture our products may adversely affect our profit margins and our ability to obtain approval for and produce our products on a timely and competitive basis, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Changes in inventory levels or fluctuations in buying patterns by our large distributor and retail customers may adversely affect our sales and earnings and add to sales variability from quarter to quarter.

We balance the need to maintain inventory levels that are sufficient to ensure competitive lead times against the risk of inventory obsolescence because of changing customer requirements, fluctuating commodity prices, changes to our products, product transfers or the life-cycle of our products. In order to successfully manage our inventories, we must estimate demand from our customers and produce products that substantially correspond to that demand. If we fail to adequately forecast demand for any new or existing product, or fail to determine the appropriate product mix for production purposes, we may face production capacity issues in manufacturing sufficient quantities of a given product. In addition, failures in our information technology systems or human error could also lead to inadequate forecasting of our overall demand or product mix.

We have a significant number of unique products, and we anticipate that number will continue to grow over time. As a result, the demand forecasting precision required for us to avoid production capacity issues will also increase, which could increase the risk of product unavailability and lost sales. Additionally, an increasing number of unique products could increase global inventory requirements, negatively impacting our working capital performance and leading to write-offs due to obsolescence and expired products.

Due to the lead times necessary to obtain and install new equipment and ramp up production of product lines, if we fail to adequately forecast the need for additional manufacturing capacity, whether for new or existing products, we may be unable to scale production in a timely manner to meet demand for our products. In addition, the technically complex manufacturing processes required to manufacture many of our products increase the risk of production failures, and can increase the cost of producing our goods. As a result, because the production process for many of our products is so complex and sensitive, the cost of production and the chance of production failures and lengthy supply interruptions is increased, which can have a substantial impact on our inventory levels.

Finally, a significant portion of our products are sold to major health care distributors and major retail chains in Canada, the United States and abroad. Consequently, our sales and quarterly growth comparisons, as well as our estimates for required inventory levels, may be affected by fluctuations in the buying patterns of major distributors, retail chains and other trade buyers. These fluctuations may result from seasonality, pricing, large retailers' and distributors' buying decisions or other factors. If we overestimate demand and produce too much of a particular product, we face a risk of inventory obsolescence, leaving us with inventory that we cannot sell profitably or at all. In addition, we may have to write down such inventory if we are unable to sell it for its recorded value. Conversely, if we underestimate demand and produce insufficient quantities of a product, we could be forced to produce that product at a higher price and forego profitability in order to meet customer demand. For example, if a competitor initiates a recall and there is an unexpected increase in the demand for our products, we may not beable to meet such increased demand. Insufficient inventory levels may lead to shortages that result in loss of sales opportunities altogether as potential end-customers turn to competitors' products that are readily available. If any of these situations occur frequently or in large volumes or if we are unable to effectively manage our inventory and that of our distribution partners, this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Risks Relating to Specific Legislation and Regulations

We are subject to various laws and regulations, including "fraud and abuse" laws, anti-bribery laws, environmental laws and privacy and security regulations, and a failure to comply with such laws and regulations or prevail in any litigation related to noncompliance could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Pharmaceutical and medical device companies have faced lawsuits and investigations pertaining to violations of health care "fraud and abuse" laws, such as the federal False Claims Act, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute ("AKS") and other state and federal laws and regulations. The AKS prohibits, among other things, knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting or receiving remuneration to induce or in return for purchasing, leasing, ordering or arranging for the purchase, lease or order of any health care item or service reimbursable under federally financed health care programs. This statute has been interpreted to apply to arrangements between pharmaceutical or medical device manufacturers, on the one hand, and prescribers, purchasers, formulary managers and other health care related professionals, on the other hand. More generally, the federal False Claims Act, among other things, prohibits any person from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false claim for payment to the federal government. Pharmaceutical and medical device companies have been prosecuted or faced civil liability under these laws for a variety of alleged promotional and marketing activities, including engaging in off-label promotion that caused claims to be submitted for non-covered off-label uses. If we are in violation of any of these requirements or any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, this could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of significant criminal and civil fines and penalties, exclusion from federal health care programs or other sanctions, including consent orders or corporate integrity agreements.

In addition, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General recommends, and increasingly states require pharmaceutical companies to have comprehensive compliance programs. Moreover, the Physician Payment Sunshine Act enacted in 2010 imposes reporting and disclosure requirements on device and drug manufacturers for any "transfer of value" made or distributed to prescribers and other health care providers. Failure to submit this required information may result in significant civil monetary penalties. While we have developed corporate compliance programs based on what we believe to be current best practices, we cannot provide assurance that we or our employees or agents are or will be in compliance with all applicable federal, state or foreign regulations and laws. If we are in violation of any of these requirements or any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of significant criminal and civil fines and penalties, exclusion from federal health care programs or other sanctions, including consent orders or corporate integrity agreements.

The U.S. FCPA and similar worldwide anti-bribery laws generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Our policies mandate compliance with these anti-bribery laws. We operate in many parts of the world that have experienced governmental corruption and in certain circumstances, strict compliance with anti-bribery laws may conflict with local customs and practices or may require us to interact with doctors and hospitals, some of which may be state controlled, in a manner that is different than in the U.S. and Canada. We cannot provide assurance that our internal control policies and procedures will protect us from reckless or criminal acts committed by our employees, consultants, distributors, third party contractors or agents. Violations of these laws, or allegations of such violations, could disrupt our business and result in criminal or civil penalties or remedial measures, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

We are also subject to various state, federal and international laws and regulations governing the collection, transmission, dissemination, use, privacy, confidentiality, security, retention, availability, integrity and other processing of health-related and other sensitive and personal information, including HIPAA. Many states in which we operate have laws that protect the privacy and security of sensitive and personal information, including health-related information. Certain state laws may be more stringent or broader in scope, or offer greater individual rights, with respect to sensitive and personal information than federal, international or other state laws, and such laws may differ from each other, which may complicate compliance efforts. For example, the CCPA imposes stringent data privacy and security requirements and obligations with respect to the personal information of California residents and provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for certain data breaches that result in the loss of personal data that may increase the likelihood of, and risks associated with, data breach litigation. The effects on our business of the CCPA and other similar state laws are potentially significant, and may require us tomodify our data processing practices and policies and to incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply. State laws are changing rapidly and there is discussion in Congress of a new federal data protection and privacy law to which we may be subject.

Internationally, laws and regulations in many jurisdictions apply broadly to the collection, transmission, dissemination, use, privacy, confidentiality, security, retention, availability, integrity and other processing of health-related and other sensitive and personal information. For example, the GDPR, together with national legislation, regulations and guidelines of the EU member states and the United Kingdom governing the processing of personal data, impose strict obligations and restrictions on the ability to collect, analyze, store, transfer and otherwise process personal data, including health data from clinical trials and adverse event reporting. The GDPR authorizes fines for certain violations of up to 4% of global annual revenue or €20 million, whichever is greater. European data protection authorities may interpret the GDPR and national laws differently and impose additional requirements, which contributes to the complexity of processing personal data in or from the EEA or United Kingdom. Guidance on implementation and compliance practices is often updated or otherwise revised. We are also subject to Canada's federal Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and substantially similar equivalents at the provincial level with respect to the collection, use and disclosure of personal information in Canada. Such federal and provincial legislation impose data privacy and security obligations on our processing of personal information of Canadian residents. The federal and Alberta legislation include mandatory data breach notification requirements. Canada's Anti-Spam Legislation ("CASL") also applies to the extent that we send commercial electronic messages from Canada or to electronic addresses in Canada. CASL contains prescriptive consent, form, content and unsubscribe mechanism requirements. Penalties for non-compliance with CASL are up to CAD $10 million per violation. These laws and regulations may be interpreted and applied differently over time and from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and it is possible they will be interpreted and applied in ways that will materially and adversely affect our business. The regulatory framework for data privacy, data security and data transfers worldwide is rapidly evolving and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. Complying with all of these laws and regulations involves costs to our business, and failure to comply with these laws and regulations can result in the imposition of significant civil and criminal penalties, as well as litigation, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline. For more information regarding applicable data privacy and security laws and regulations, see Item 1. "Business - Government Regulations" of this Form 10-K.

We are also subject to U.S. federal laws regarding reporting and payment obligations with respect to our participation in federal health care programs, including Medicare and Medicaid. Because our processes for calculating applicable government prices and the judgments involved in making these calculations involve subjective decisions and complex methodologies, these calculations are subject to risk of errors and differing interpretations. In addition, they are subject to review and challenge by the applicable governmental agencies, and it is possible that such reviews could result in changes that could have material adverse legal, regulatory, or economic consequences.

Legislative or regulatory reform of the health care system may affect our ability to sell our products profitably and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

In the U.S. and certain foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory proposals to change the health care system in ways that could impact our ability to sell our products profitably. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care Reform Act may affect the operational results of companies in the pharmaceutical and medical device industries, including the Company and other health care related industries, by imposing on them additional costs. Effective January 1, 2010, the Health Care Reform Act increased the minimum Medicaid drug rebates for pharmaceutical companies, expanded the 340B drug discount program, and made changes to affect the Medicare Part D coverage gap, or "donut hole." The law also revised the definition of "average manufacturer price" for reporting purposes, which may affect the amount of our Medicaid drug rebates to states. Beginning in 2011, the law imposed a significant annual fee on companies that manufacture or import branded prescription drug products. More recently, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 amended the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, effective January 1, 2019, to close the donut hole in most Medicare drug plans. In addition, in April 2018, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services published a final rule that gives states greater flexibility in setting benchmarks for insurers in the individual and small group marketplaces, which may have the effect of relaxing the essential health benefits required under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act for plans sold through such marketplaces.

Although efforts at replacing the Health Care Reform Act have stalled in Congress, there are a number of proposals that we expect to be introduced to Congress and put forth by the Biden administration, including proposals relating to drug pricing and drug delivery reforms, that may result in further changes to the health care system that could materially impact the Company. We cannot predict what those changes will be or when they will take effect, and we could face additional risks arising from such changes. Because of this continued uncertainty, the number of proposals and the indeterminable position thatthe Biden administration may take with regard to the Health Care Reform Act, we cannot quantify or predict with any certainty the likely impact of these proposals on our business model, prospects, financial condition or results of operations, in particular on the pricing, coverage or reimbursement of any of our product candidates that may receive marketing approval. Additionally, policy efforts designed specifically to reduce patient out-of-pocket costs for medicines could result in new mandatory rebates and discounts or other pricing restrictions. Legislative efforts relating to drug pricing, the cost of prescription drugs under Medicare, the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and government program reimbursement methodologies for drugs have been proposed and considered at the U.S. federal and state level. While some of these proposed measures will require authorization through additional legislation to become effective, Congress and the administration have each indicated an intent to continue to seek new legislative or administrative measures to control drug costs. At the state level, legislatures have increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. We also anticipate that Congress, state legislatures, and third-party payors may continue to review and assess alternative health care delivery and payment systems and may in the future propose and adopt legislation or policy changes or implementations effecting additional fundamental changes in the health care delivery system. We cannot provide assurance as to the ultimate content, timing, or effect of changes, nor is it possible at this time to estimate the impact of any such potential legislation.

In 2019, the U.S. Health and Human Services Administration announced a preliminary plan to allow for the importation of certain lower-cost drugs from Canada. The preliminary plan excludes insulin, biological drugs, controlled substances and intravenous drugs. The preliminary plan relies on individual states to develop proposals for safe importation of those drugs from Canada and submit those proposals to the federal government for approval. At this time, studies to evaluate the related costs and benefits, evaluate the reasonableness of the logistics, and measure the public reaction of such a plan have not been performed. We cannot provide assurance as to the ultimate content, timing, effect or impact of such a plan.

In 2019, the Government of Canada (Health Canada) published in the Canadian Gazette the new pricing regulation for patented drugs. These regulations will become effective on July 1, 2021. The new regulations will change the mechanics of establishing the pricing for products submitted for approval after August 21, 2019; they will also require full transparency of discounts agreed with provincial bodies; and finally, will change the number and composition of reference countries used to determine if a drug's price is excessive. While we do not believe this will have a significant impact on our future cash flows, as additional facts materialize, we cannot provide assurance as to the ultimate content, timing, effect or impact of such regulations.

The Health Care Reform Act and further changes to health care laws or regulatory framework that reduce our revenues or increase our costs could also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

We are subject to a broad range of environmental laws and regulations and may be subject to environmental remediation obligations under such safety and related laws and regulations. The impact of these obligations and the Company's ability to respond effectively to them may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

We are subject to a broad range of federal, state, provincial and local environmental laws and regulations concerning the environment, safety matters, regulation of chemicals and product safety in the countries where we manufacture and sell our products or otherwise operate our business. These requirements include, among other matters, regulation of the handling, manufacture, transportation, storage, use and disposal of materials, including the discharge of pollutants, hazardous substances and waste into the environment. In the normal course of our business, such substances and waste may be released into the environment, which could cause environmental or property damage or personal injuries, and which could subject us to remediation obligations regarding contaminated soil and groundwater, potential liability for damage claims or to social or reputational harm and other similar adverse impacts. Under certain laws, we may be required to remediate contamination at certain of our properties regardless of whether the contamination was caused by us or by previous occupants of the property or by others and at third-party sites where we send waste.

In recent years, the operations of all companies have become subject to increasingly stringent legislation and regulation related to environmental protection. Such legislation and regulations are complex and constantly changing. Future events, such as changes in existing laws or regulations or the enforcement thereof or the discovery of contamination at our facilities may, among other things, require us to install additional controls for certain of our emission sources, undertake changes in our manufacturing processes, remediate soil or groundwater contamination at facilities where such cleanup is not currently required or to take action to address social expectations or concerns arising from or relating to such changes and our response to such changes. The cost of such additional compliance or remediation obligations or responding to such social expectations or concerns may be significant and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Other Risks

Our business and operations could be negatively affected by shareholder activism, which could cause us to incur significant expenses, hinder execution of our business strategy and impact our share price.

In recent years, shareholder activism involving corporate governance, fiduciary duties of directors and officers, strategic direction and operations has become increasingly prevalent. One of our investors, which owns approximately 7.8% of our outstanding common shares, filed a Schedule 13D with the SEC in February 2021, in which it was indicated that the investor intended to engage in discussions with our management and board regarding ways to enhance shareholder value, including our ongoing strategic review and that it may also seek board representation. Another of our investors, which owns approximately 6% of our outstanding common shares, filed a Schedule 13D with the SEC in July 2020, in which it indicated that it intended to consider, explore and/or develop plans and/or make proposals respecting, among other things, our businesses, assets, operations, and strategy, and to explore ways to strengthen the company and enhance shareholder value. In February 2021, this investor also sent the Company a public letter, in which it stated that the proposed Separation should be completed by the end of 2021 and recommended, among other things, the divestiture of certain of our businesses and assets.

In the event such investors continue to pursue such proposals or we become the subject of additional shareholder activism, this may create a significant distraction for our management and employees. This could negatively impact our ability to execute our business plans (including the Separation) and may require our management to expend significant time, resources and costs, including legal fees and other expenses incurred in connection with any proxy contest that may result from any such shareholder activism. Furthermore, if individuals are elected to our Board with a specific agenda, it may adversely affect our ability to effectively implement our business strategy and create additional value for our shareholders and could lead us to adopt other plans that we cannot predict and which could focus on short-term benefits with longer-term costs. Such shareholder activism may also create uncertainties with respect to our financial position and operations, may adversely affect our ability to attract and retain key employees and may result in loss of potential business opportunities with our current and potential customers and business partners, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. In addition, such shareholder activism may cause significant fluctuations in our share price based on temporary or speculative market perceptions, uncertainties or other factors that do not necessarily reflect the underlying fundamentals and prospects of our business, and could cause the market value of our common shares to decline. While we will remain responsive to shareholder demands, there is no assurance that we will achieve their objectives, or that doing so will decrease the likelihood of activist shareholder engagement in the future.

We have significant goodwill and other intangible assets and potential impairment of goodwill and other intangibles may have a significant adverse impact on our profitability.

Goodwill and intangible assets represent a significant portion of our total assets. Finite-lived intangible assets are subject to an impairment analysis whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are tested for impairment annually, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset may be impaired. If impairment exists, we would be required to take an impairment charge with respect to the impaired asset.

For example, in 2020, 2019 and 2018, we recognized impairments, including a loss on assets held for sale, to finite-lived and indefinite-lived intangible assets of $114 million, $75 million and $568 million, respectively. These asset impairments were primarily attributable to: (i) assets being classified as held for sale and (ii) revisions in sales forecasts associated with discontinuances, generic competition and other market forces. In addition to impairments to finite-lived and indefinite-lived intangible assets, in 2018, we recognized goodwill impairments of $2,322 million. These impairments to goodwill were primarily the result of: (i) the adoption of new accounting guidance in 2018 and (ii) revisions to forecasts to certain reporting units, as a result of changing business dynamics and market conditions. There were no goodwill impairments in 2020 and 2019.

The Company conducted its annual goodwill impairment test as of October 1, 2020. No impairment to the goodwill of any reporting unit was identified. If market conditions deteriorate, or if the Company is unable to execute its strategies, it may be necessary to record impairment charges in the future.

See Note 5, "FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS" and Note 8, "INTANGIBLE ASSETS AND GOODWILL" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for further information on these impairment charges.

Events giving rise to impairment are difficult to predict, including the uncertainties associated with the launch of new products, and are an inherent risk in the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. As a result of the significance of goodwill and intangible assets, our financial condition and results of operations in a future period could be negatively impacted should such an impairment of goodwill or intangible assets occur, which could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline. We may be required to take additional impairment charges in the future and such impairment charges may be material.

We have become increasingly dependent on information technology systems and infrastructure and any breakdown, interruption, breach or other compromise of our or our third-party vendors' information technology systems could subject us to liability or interrupt the operation of our business, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

We are increasingly dependent upon our information technology systems and infrastructure, as well as those of third parties with whom we interact, and internal and public internet sites, data hosting and processing facilities, cloud-based services and hardware, social media sites and mobile technology, in connection with the conduct of our business.

We must constantly update our information technology systems and infrastructure and undertake investments in new information technology systems and infrastructure. However, we cannot provide assurance that the information technology systems and infrastructure on which we depend, including those of third parties, will continue to meet our current and future business needs or adequately safeguard our operations. Furthermore, modification, upgrade or replacement of such systems and infrastructure may be costly or out of our control.

Any failure to so modify, upgrade or replace such systems and infrastructure, any disruptions that occur during the process of such modification, upgrade or replacement and/or any breakdown, interruption or corruption of the information technology systems and infrastructure on which we rely could create system disruptions, shutdowns, delays in generating or the corruption of data and information or other disruptions that could result in negative financial, operational, business or reputational consequences for us.

The size and complexity of the information technology systems and infrastructure on which we rely makes such systems and infrastructure potentially vulnerable to internal or external inadvertent or intentional security breaches, including as a result of private or state-sponsored cybercrimes, terrorism, war, malware, ransomware, human error, system malfunction, telecommunication and electrical failures, natural disaster, fire, misplaced or lost data, socially engineered breaches or other similar events.

In addition, during the normal course of our business operations, including through the use of information technology systems and infrastructure, we are involved in the collection, transmission, use, retention and other processing of sensitive, confidential, non-public or personal data and information in Canada, the United States and abroad.

Cyber-attacks are increasing in frequency, sophistication and intensity and are made by groups and individuals with a wide range of motives and expertise. Cyber-attacks could include the deployment of harmful malware, ransomware, denial-of-service attacks, worms, social engineering, improper modification of information, fraudulent "phishing" e-mails and other means to affect service reliability or threaten data confidentiality, integrity or availability. Techniques used in these attacks are often highly sophisticated, change frequently and may be difficult to detect for long periods of time.

We have established physical, electronic and organizational measures intended to safeguard and secure our systems to prevent a compromise and policies and procedures designed to provide for the timely investigation of cybersecurity incidents and the timely disclosure of cybersecurity incidents consistent with our legal and contractual obligations. We also rely on commercially available systems, software, tools and monitoring to provide security for the processing, transmission and storage of digital information.

While we attempt to take appropriate security and cybersecurity measures to protect our information technology systems and infrastructure (including any confidential or other sensitive information) and to prevent and detect breakdowns, unauthorized breaches and cyber-attacks, we cannot guarantee that such measures will be successful and that breakdowns and breaches of, or attacks on, our systems and data, or those of third parties upon which we rely, will be prevented. Any such incidents, or the public perception that we or any third party upon which we rely have suffered such an incident, may cause business interruption and damage our reputation with customers, employees and third parties with whom we do business, and we may suffer litigation, financial damage, regulatory investigations, enforcement, orders and other actions, which could result in injunctions, fines and penalties, as well as costs relating to investigation of an incident, corrective actions, required notification, credit monitoring services and other expenses, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

In addition, we provide confidential and other sensitive information to third parties when necessary to pursue our business objectives. While we obtain assurances that these third parties will protect this information and, where appropriate, monitor the protections employed by these third parties, there is a risk that the confidentiality of information held by third parties, including trade secrets and sensitive personal information, may be compromised, including as a result of cybersecurity breaches, breakdowns or other incidents. If personal information of our customers or employees is misappropriated, our reputation with our customers and employees may be injured, resulting in loss of business and/or morale. Any such incidents could require us to incur costs to remediate possible injury to our customers and employees, to further improve our protectivemeasures or to pay fines or take other action with respect to litigation, judicial or regulatory actions arising out of such incidents, which may be significant.

While we maintain insurance against some of these risks, this insurance may not be sufficient to cover the financial, legal, business or reputational losses that may result from a breakdown, breach, cyber-attack or other compromise of or interruption to our information technology systems and infrastructure or confidential and other sensitive information. We also cannot ensure that any limitation of liability or indemnity provisions in our contracts, including with vendors and service providers, for a security lapse or breach or other security incident would be enforceable or adequate or would otherwise protect us from any liabilities or damages with respect to any particular claim. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/ or debt securities to decline.

The Company's ability to effectively monitor and respond to the rapid and ongoing developments and expectations relating to environmental, social and governance ("ESG") matters, including related social expectations and concerns, may impose unexpected costs on the Company or result in reputational or other harm to the Company that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

If the Company is not able to adequately recognize and respond to the rapid and ongoing developments and governmental and social expectations relating to ESG matters such as climate change and access to health care and affordable drugs, this failure could result in missed corporate opportunities for the Company, additional regulatory, social or other scrutiny of the Company and its businesses, the imposition of unexpected costs on the Company or in damage to the reputation of the Company or its various brands with governments, customers, employees, third parties and the communities in which we operate, in each case that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

The restatement of our previously issued financial statements was time-consuming and expensive and could expose us to additional risks that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

We restated our previously issued audited Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2014 and the unaudited financial information for the quarters ended December 31, 2014 and March 31, 2015. This restatement and the review of the misstatements that necessitated the restatement was time consuming and expensive and could expose us to potential claims and additional risks that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline. In particular, we could be subject to further shareholder litigation and additional governmental investigations and proceedings in connection with the restatements or related other matters. If we do not prevail in any such proceedings, we could be required to pay substantial damages or settlement costs. In addition, although the remediation of the material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting that contributed to the material misstatements in the Consolidated Financial Statements previously described has been completed, if our remedial measures were insufficient to properly and fully address the material weaknesses, or if additional material weaknesses in our internal controls are discovered or occur in the future, it may materially adversely affect our ability to report our financial condition and results of operations in a timely and accurate manner and there will continue to be an increased risk of future misstatements.

We have entered into distribution agreements with other companies to distribute certain of our products at supply prices based on net sales. Declines in the pricing and/or volume, over which we have no or limited control, of such products, and therefore the amounts paid to us, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Certain of our products are the subject of third-party distribution or sublicense agreements, pursuant to which we may manufacture and sell products to other companies, which distribute such products in return for a royalty or a supply price, in both cases which are often based on net sales. Our ability to control pricing and volume of these products may be limited and, in some cases, these companies make all distribution and pricing decisions independently of us. If the pricing or volume of such products declines, our revenues would be adversely impacted which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

The illegal distribution and sale of counterfeit versions of our products may reduce demand for our products or have a negative impact on the reputation of our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financialcondition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Third parties may illegally distribute and sell counterfeit versions of our products, which do not meet or adhere to the rigorous quality, safety, manufacturing, storage and handling standards and regulations that apply to our products. The prevalence of counterfeit products is a growing industry-wide issue due to the widespread use of the Internet, which has greatly facilitated the ease by which counterfeit products can be advertised, purchased and delivered. The discovery of safety or efficacy issues, adverse events or even death or personal injury associated with or caused by counterfeit products may be attributed to our products and may cause reputational harm to our products or the Company. We may not be able to detect or, if detected, prevent or prohibit the sale of such counterfeit products. As a result, the illegal sale or distribution of counterfeit products may negatively impact the demand for and sales of our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/ or debt securities to decline.

Our revenues and profits could be reduced by imports from countries where our products are available at lower prices.

Prices for our products are based on local market economics and competition and differ from country to country. Our sales in countries with relatively higher prices may be reduced if products can be imported into those or other countries from lower price markets. If this happens with our products, our revenues and profits may be adversely affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Our policies regarding returns, allowances and chargebacks, and marketing programs adopted by wholesalers, may reduce our revenues in future fiscal periods.

We provide certain rebates, allowances, chargebacks and other credits to our customers with respect to certain of our products. For example, we make payments or give credits to certain wholesalers for the difference between the invoice price paid to us by our wholesaler customer for a particular product and the negotiated price that such wholesaler sells such products to its hospitals, group purchasing organizations, pharmacies or other retail customers. We also give certain of our customers credits on our products that such customers hold in inventory after we have decreased the WAC prices of such products, such credit being for the difference between the old and new price. In addition, we also implement and maintain returns policies, pursuant to which our customers may return product to us in certain circumstances in return for a credit. Although we establish reserves based on our prior experience, wholesaler data, then-current on-hand inventory, our best estimates of the impact that these policies may have in subsequent periods and certain other considerations, we cannot ensure that our reserves are adequate or that actual product returns, rebates, allowances and chargebacks will not exceed our estimates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

We may experience declines in sales volumes or prices of certain of our products as the result of the concentration of sales to wholesalers and the continuing trend towards consolidation of such wholesalers and other customer groups and this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

For certain of our products, a significant portion of our sales are to a relatively small number of customers. If our relationship with one or more of such customers is disrupted or changes adversely or if one or more of such customers experience financial difficulty or other material adverse changes in their businesses, it could materially and adversely affect our sales and financial results, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

In addition, wholesalers and retail drug chains have undergone, and are continuing to undergo, significant consolidation. This consolidation may result in these groups gaining additional purchasing leverage and consequently increasing the product pricing pressures facing our business. The result of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

We have various indemnity agreements and indemnity arrangements in place, which may result in an obligation to indemnify or reimburse the relevant counterparty, which amounts may be material.

All directors and/or officers of the Company, and each of its various subsidiary entities, are indemnified by the Company in respect of their service as directors and/or officers, subject to certain restrictions. We have purchased directors' and officers' liability insurance to mitigate the cost of any potential future lawsuits or actions. The maximum amount of any potential future payment cannot be reasonably estimated but could have a material adverse effect on the Company.

In the normal course of business, we have entered or may enter into agreements that include indemnities in favor of third parties, such as purchase and sale agreements, license agreements, engagement letters with advisors and consultants and various product and service agreements. These indemnification arrangements may require us to compensate counterparties for losses incurred by the counterparties as a result of breaches in representations, covenants and warranties provided by us or as a result of litigation or other third-party claims or statutory sanctions that may be suffered by the counterparties as a consequence of the relevant transaction. In some instances, the terms of these indemnities are not explicitly defined. We, whenever possible, try to limit this potential liability within the particular agreement or contract, but due to the unpredictability of future events the maximum amount of any potential reimbursement cannot be reasonably estimated, but could have a material adverse effect on the Company.

General Risk Factors

Our operating results and financial condition may fluctuate.

Our operating results and financial condition may fluctuate from quarter to quarter for a number of reasons. In addition, our stock price can be volatile. The following events or occurrences, among others, could cause fluctuations in our financial performance and/or stock price from period to period:

  • • development and launch of new competitive products;

  • • the timing and receipt of FDA and other regulatory approvals or lack of approvals;

  • • costs related to business development transactions;

  • • changes in the amount we spend to promote our products;

  • • delays between our expenditures to acquire new products, technologies or businesses and the generation of revenues from those acquired products, technologies or businesses;

  • • changes in treatment practices of physicians that currently prescribe certain of our products;

  • • increases in the cost of raw materials used to manufacture our products;

  • • FDA or other regulatory actions relating to our manufacturers or suppliers;

  • • manufacturing and supply interruptions;

  • • our responses to price competition;

  • • new legislation that would control or regulate the prices of drugs;

  • • a protracted and wide-ranging trade conflict between the United States and China;

  • • expenditures as a result of legal actions (and settlements thereof), including the defense of our patents and other intellectual property;

  • • market acceptance of our products;

  • • the timing of wholesaler and distributor purchases and success of our wholesaler and distributor arrangements;

  • • general economic and industry conditions, including potential fluctuations in interest rates;

  • • changes in seasonality of demand for certain of our products;

  • • foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations;

  • • changes to, or the confidence in, our business strategy;

  • • changes to, or the confidence in, our management; and

  • • expectations for future growth.

As a result, quarter-to-quarter comparisons of results from operations, or any other similar period-to-period comparisons, may not be reliable indicators of our future performance. In any quarterly period, our results may be below the expectations of market analysts and investors, which could cause the market value of our common shares and/or debt securities to decline.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

We own and lease a number of important properties. Our headquarters and one of our manufacturing facilities are located in Laval, Quebec. We own several manufacturing facilities throughout the U.S. We also own or have an interest in manufacturing plants or other properties outside the U.S., including in Canada, Mexico, and certain countries in Europe, North Africa, Asia and South America.

We consider our facilities to be in satisfactory condition and suitable for their intended use, although some limited investments to improve our manufacturing and other related facilities are contemplated, based on the needs and requirements of our business. Our administrative, marketing, research/laboratory, distribution and warehousing facilities are located in various parts of the world. We co-locate our R&D activities with our manufacturing at the plant level in a number of facilities. Ourscientists, engineers, quality assurance/quality control professionals and manufacturing technicians work side-by-side in designing and manufacturing products that fit the needs and requirements of our customers, regulators and business units.

We believe that we have sufficient facilities to conduct our operations during 2021. Our facilities in aggregate are over 10 million square feet and include, among others, the following list of principal properties by segment:

Owned

Approximate

or

Square

Location

Purpose

Leased

Footage

Corporate & Administration

Laval, Quebec, Canada

Corporate headquarters, R&D, manufacturing and warehouse facility

Owned

338,000

Bridgewater, New Jersey(1)

Administration

Leased

310,000

Bausch + Lomb/International

Rochester, New York

Offices, R&D and manufacturing facility

Owned

953,000

San Juan del Rio, Mexico

Offices and manufacturing facility

Owned

853,000

El Obour City, Egypt(2)

Offices, R&D, manufacturing and warehouse facility

Owned

630,000

Jelenia Gora, Poland

Offices, R&D, manufacturing and warehouse facility

Owned

521,000

Waterford, Ireland

R&D and manufacturing facility

Owned

500,000

Woodruff, South Carolina

Distribution facility

Leased

432,000

Jinan, China

Offices and manufacturing facility

Owned

418,000

Rzeszow, Poland

Offices, R&D, manufacturing and warehouse facility

Owned

380,000

Berlin, Germany

Manufacturing, distribution and office facility

Owned

339,000

Greenville, South Carolina

Manufacturing and distribution facility

Owned

314,000

Chattanooga, Tennessee

Distribution facility

Leased

240,000

Aubenas, France

Offices, manufacturing and warehouse facility

Owned

148,000

Macherio, Italy

Offices, R&D, manufacturing and warehouse facility

Owned

119,000

Beijing, China

Warehouse facility and distribution

Owned

97,000

Salix

Steinbach, Manitoba, Canada

Offices, manufacturing and warehouse facility

Owned

241,000

____________________________________

(1) - A lease for a second building in Bridgewater, New Jersey was signed in 2015 and was not included in the square footage shown in the table above as the Company never occupied the second building. In 2016, the Company concluded that it would not occupy the second building and recognized the appropriate charge for all future rents due, net of the anticipated sub-let income associated with the second building.

(2) - This property is part of a business within our Bausch + Lomb/International segment business which, as of December 31, 2020, is classified as held for sale. See Note 3, "ACQUISITIONS, LICENSING AGREEMENTS AND ASSETS HELD FOR SALE" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

See Note 20, "LEGAL PROCEEDINGS" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for details on legal proceedings.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

Our common shares are traded on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") and on the Toronto Stock Exchange ("TSX") under the symbol "BHC".

Market Price Volatility of Common Shares

Market prices for the securities of pharmaceutical, medical devices and biotechnology companies, including our securities, have historically been highly volatile, and the market has experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that are unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. Factors such as fluctuations in our operating results, the aftermath of public announcements by us or by others about us, changes in our executive management, changes in our business strategy, concern as to the safety of drugs and medical devices, the commencement or outcome of legal or governmental proceedings, changes in our ability to access credit markets, changes in the cost of capital, investigations or inquiries, and general market conditions can have an adverse effect on the market price of our common shares and other securities. For example, during 2015 and 2016, we experienced significant fluctuations and decreases in the market price of our common shares as a result of, among other things, legal and governmental proceedings and investigations with respect to certain of our distribution, marketing, pricing, disclosure and accounting practices, rising interest rates and certain public allegations made by short sellers and other third parties relating to certain of these matters. See Item 1A. "Risk Factors" of this Form 10-K for additional information.

Holders

The approximate number of holders of record of our common shares as of February 18, 2021 was 1,834.

Performance Graph

The following performance graphs compare the cumulative total return on a $100 investment on December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2016, assuming reinvestment of all dividends, in: (i) our common shares, (ii) the S&P 500 Index, (iii) the S&P/ TSX Composite Index and (iv) a composite peer group of 11 major U.S. based pharmaceutical companies for the four and five years ended December 31, 2020. The composite peer group of 11 major U.S. based pharmaceutical companies consists of Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc, Amgen Inc, Biogen Inc, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co, Eli Lilly And Co, Endo International Plc, Jazz Pharmaceuticals Plc, Mallinckrodt Plc, Perrigo Company Plc, United Therapeutics Corp and Zoetis Inc.

Five Year Performance - Cumulative total return on a $100 investment on December 31, 2015

As of December 31,

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

Bausch Health Companies Inc.

$100

$14

$20

$18

$29

$20

S&P 500

$100

$112

$136

$130

$171

$203

S&P/TSX Composite

$100

$121

$132

$120

$148

$156

Peer Group

$100

$85

$98

$105

$128

$140

Prior to 2016, the Company completed a series of mergers and acquisitions, which, at the time, were in-line with the Company's strategy for growth. However, in response to changing business dynamics within our Company, we recognized the need to change our focus in order to build a world-class health organization. To do so, in 2016, we retained a new executive team, which, in 2017, implemented a multi-year plan to stabilize, turnaround and transform our Company. The performance graph below of cumulative total return as of December 31, 2016 is provided to coincide with the implementation of the Company's turnaround strategies in 2017 to focus on our core businesses, eye-health, GI and dermatology.

Four Year Performance - Cumulative total return on a $100 investment on December 31, 2016

As of December 31,

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

Bausch Health Companies Inc.

$100

$143

$127

$206

$143

S&P 500

$100

$122

$116

$153

$181

S&P/TSX Composite

$100

$109

$99

$122

$129

Peer Group

$100

$115

$123

$149

$164

Dividends

No dividends were declared or paid in 2020, 2019 or 2018. While our Board of Directors will review our dividend policy periodically, we currently do not intend to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. In addition, our Restated Credit Agreement and indentures include restrictions on the payment of dividends. See Note 10, "FINANCING ARRANGEMENTS" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for further details regarding these restrictions.

Restrictions on Share Ownership by Non-Canadians

There are no limitations under the laws of Canada or in our organizational documents on the right of foreigners to hold or vote securities of our Company, except that the Investment Canada Act (Canada) (the "Investment Canada Act") may require review and approval by the Minister of Innovation, Science and Economic Development (Canada) (the "Minister") of an acquisition of "control" of our Company by a "non-Canadian".

Investment Canada Act

An acquisition of control of a Canadian business by a non-Canadian is either reviewable (a "Reviewable Transaction"), in which case it is subject to both a reporting obligation and an approval process, or notifiable, in which case it is subject to only a reporting obligation. In the case of a Reviewable Transaction, the non-Canadian acquirer must submit an application for review with the prescribed information. The Minister is then required to determine whether the Reviewable Transaction is likely to be of net benefit to Canada, taking into account the assessment factors specified in the Investment Canada Act and any written undertakings that may have been given by the non-Canadian acquirer.

The Investment Canada Act provides that any investment by a non-Canadian in a Canadian business, even where control has not been acquired, can be reviewed on grounds of whether it may be injurious to national security. Where an investment is determined to be injurious to national security, Cabinet can prohibit closing or, if closed, can order the investor to divest control. Short of a prohibition or divestment order, Cabinet can impose terms or conditions on the investment or can require the investor to provide binding undertakings to remove the national security concern.

Competition Act

Part IX of the Competition Act (Canada) (the "Competition Act") requires that a pre-merger notification filing be submitted to the Commissioner of Competition (the "Commissioner") in respect of certain classes of merger transactions that exceed certain prescribed thresholds. If a proposed transaction exceeds such thresholds, subject to certain exceptions, the notification filing must be submitted to the Commissioner and the statutory waiting period must expire or be terminated early or waived by the Commissioner before the transaction can be completed.

All mergers, regardless of whether they are subject to Part IX of the Competition Act, are subject to the substantive mergers provisions under Section 92 of the Competition Act. In particular, the Commissioner may challenge a transaction before the Competition Tribunal where the transaction prevents or lessens, or is likely to prevent or lessen, competition substantially in a market. The Commissioner may not make an application to the Competition Tribunal under Section 92 of the Competition Act more than one year after the merger has been substantially completed.

Exchange Controls

Canada has no system of exchange controls. There are no Canadian exchange restrictions on the repatriation of capital or earnings of a Canadian public company to non-resident investors. There are no Canadian exchange restrictions affecting the remittance of dividends, profits, interest, royalties and other payments to non-resident holders of our securities.

Taxation

Canadian Federal Income Taxation

The following discussion is a summary of the principal Canadian federal income tax considerations generally applicable to a holder of our common shares who, at all relevant times, for purposes of the Income Tax Act (Canada) and the Income Tax Regulations (collectively, the "Canadian Tax Act") deals at arm's-length with, and is not affiliated with, our Company, beneficially owns its common shares as capital property, does not use or hold and is not deemed to use or hold such common shares in carrying on a business in Canada, does not with respect to common shares enter into a "derivative forward agreement" as defined in the Canadian Tax Act, and who, at all relevant times, for purposes of the application of the Canadian Tax Act and the Canada-U.S. Income Tax Convention (1980, as amended) (the "U.S. Treaty"), is resident in the U.S., is not, and is not deemed to be, resident in Canada and is eligible for benefits under the U.S. Treaty (a "U.S. Holder"). Special rules, which are not discussed in the summary, may apply to a non-resident holder that is an insurer that carries on an insurance business in Canada and elsewhere or that is an "authorized foreign bank" as defined in the Canadian Tax Act.

The U.S. Treaty includes limitation on benefits rules that restrict the ability of certain persons who are resident in the U.S. to claim any or all benefits under the U.S. Treaty. Furthermore, limited liability companies ("LLCs") that are not taxed as corporations pursuant to the provisions of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended do not generally qualify as resident in the U.S. for purposes of the U.S. Treaty. Under the U.S. Treaty, a resident of the U.S. who is a member of such an LLC and is otherwise eligible for benefits under the U.S. Treaty may generally be entitled to claim benefits under theU.S. Treaty in respect of income, profits or gains derived through the LLC. Residents of the U.S. should consult their own tax advisors with respect to their eligibility for benefits under the U.S. Treaty, having regard to these rules.

This summary is based upon the current provisions of the U.S. Treaty and the Canadian Tax Act and our understanding of the current administrative policies and assessing practices of the Canada Revenue Agency published in writing prior to the date hereof. This summary takes into account all specific proposals to amend the U.S. Treaty and the Canadian Tax Act publicly announced by or on behalf of the Minister of Finance (Canada) prior to the date hereof. This summary does not otherwise take into account or anticipate changes in law or administrative policies and assessing practices, whether by judicial, regulatory, administrative or legislative decision or action, nor does it take into account provincial, territorial or foreign tax legislation or considerations, which may differ from those discussed herein.

This summary is of a general nature only and is not intended to be, nor should it be construed to be, legal or tax advice generally or to any particular holder. Holders should consult their own tax advisors with respect to their own particular circumstances.

Gains on Disposition of Common Shares

In general, a U.S. Holder will not be subject to tax under the Canadian Tax Act on capital gains arising on the disposition of such holder's common shares unless the common shares are "taxable Canadian property" to the U.S. Holder and are not "treaty-protected property".

As long as the common shares are then listed on a "designated stock exchange", which currently includes the NYSE and TSX, the common shares generally will not constitute taxable Canadian property of a U.S. Holder, unless: (a) at any time during the 60-month period preceding the disposition, the U.S. Holder, persons not dealing at arm's length with such U.S. Holder or the U.S. Holder together with all such persons, owned 25% or more of the issued shares of any class or series of the capital stock of the Company and (b) more than 50% of the fair market value of the common shares was derived, directly or indirectly, from any combination of: (i) real or immoveable property situated in Canada, (ii) "Canadian resource property" (as such term is defined in the Canadian Tax Act), (iii) "timber resource property" (as such term is defined in the Canadian Tax Act) or (iv) options in respect of, or interests in, or for civil law rights in, any such properties whether or not the property exists or the common shares are otherwise deemed to be taxable Canadian property.

Common shares will be treaty-protected property where the U.S. Holder is exempt from income tax under the Canadian Tax Act on the disposition of common shares because of the U.S. Treaty. Common shares owned by a U.S. Holder will generally be treaty-protected property where the value of the common shares is not derived principally from real property situated in Canada, as defined in the U.S. Treaty.

Dividends on Common Shares

Dividends paid or credited on the common shares or deemed to be paid or credited on the common shares to a U.S. Holder that is the beneficial owner of such dividends will generally be subject to non-resident withholding tax under the Canadian Tax Act and the U.S. Treaty at the rate of: (a) 5% of the amounts paid or credited if the U.S. Holder is a company that owns (or is deemed to own) at least 10% of our voting stock or (b) 15% of the amounts paid or credited in all other cases. The rate of withholding under the Canadian Tax Act in respect of dividends paid to non-residents of Canada is 25% where no tax treaty applies.

Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans

Information required under this Item will be included in our definitive proxy statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders expected to be filed with the SEC no later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Form 10-K (the "2021 Proxy Statement"), and such required information is incorporated herein by reference.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Company and Affiliated Purchases

There were no purchases of equity securities by the Company during the fourth quarter of the year ended December 31, 2020.

Item 6. Selected Financial Data

Not applicable.

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

INTRODUCTION

This "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" has been updated through February 24, 2021 and should be read in conjunction with the audited Consolidated Financial Statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The matters discussed in "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" contain certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and that may be forward-looking information within the meaning defined under applicable Canadian securities laws (collectively, "Forward-Looking Statements"). See "Forward-Looking Statements" at the end of this discussion. Additional company information, including this Form 10-K, is available on SEDAR at www.sedar.com and on the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") website at www.sec.gov. All currency amounts are expressed in U.S. dollars, unless otherwise noted.

OVERVIEW

Bausch Health Companies Inc. ("we", "us", "our" or the "Company") is a global company whose mission is to improve people's lives with our health care products. We develop, manufacture and market, primarily in the therapeutic areas of eye-health, gastroenterology ("GI") and dermatology, a broad range of: (i) branded pharmaceuticals, (ii) generic and branded generic pharmaceuticals, (iii) over-the-counter ("OTC") products and (iv) medical devices (contact lenses, intraocular lenses, ophthalmic surgical equipment and aesthetics devices), which are marketed directly or indirectly in approximately 100 countries.

We generated revenues for 2020, 2019 and 2018, of $8,027 million, $8,601 million and $8,380 million, respectively. Our portfolio of products falls into four operating and reportable segments: (i) Bausch + Lomb/International, (ii) Salix, (iii) Ortho Dermatologics and (iv) Diversified Products.

  • • The Bausch + Lomb/International segment consists of: (i) sales in the U.S. of pharmaceutical products, OTC products and medical device products, primarily comprised of Bausch + Lomb products, with a focus on the Vision Care, Surgical, Consumer and Ophthalmology Rx products and (ii) with the exception of sales of Solta products, sales in Canada, Europe, Asia, Australia, Latin America, Africa and the Middle East of branded pharmaceutical products, branded generic pharmaceutical products, OTC products, medical device products and Bausch + Lomb products.

  • The Salix segment consists of sales in the U.S. of GI products.

  • The Ortho Dermatologics segment consists of: (i) sales in the U.S. of Ortho Dermatologics (dermatological) products and (ii) global sales of Solta medical aesthetic devices.

  • The Diversified Products segment consists of sales in the U.S. of: (i) pharmaceutical products in the areas of neurology and certain other therapeutic classes, (ii) generic products and (iii) dentistry products.

For additional discussion of our reportable segments, see the discussion in Item 1. "Business - Segment Information" and Note 22, "SEGMENT INFORMATION" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for further details on these reportable segments.

As discussed further below, on August 6, 2020, the Company announced that it intends to separate its eye-health business into an independent publicly traded entity from the remainder of Bausch Health Companies Inc. (the "Separation"). In connection with the Separation, the Company expects to realign and begin managing its operations in a manner consistent with the organizational structure of the two separate entities as proposed by the Separation during the first quarter of 2021.

Our Focus on Value

In 2016, we retained a new executive team which implemented a multi-year plan designed to transform and bring out value in our Company. The multi-year plan increased our focus on, among other factors, our: product portfolio, infrastructure, geographic footprint, capital structure and risk management. Since that time, we have been executing and continue to execute on our commitments to transform the Company and generate value. Under the multi-year plan, we have taken the following actions, among others:

  • • divested non-core assets in order to narrow the Company's activities to our core businesses where we believe we have an existing and sustainable competitive edge and the ability to generate operational efficiencies. To date we received approximately $3,500 million in net proceeds from these divestitures;

  • • made strategic investments in our core businesses in order to support recent revenue growth and prepare for additional growth opportunities we plan to capitalize on for our core businesses;

  • made measurable progress in improving our capital structure as we have repaid over $8,600 million in debt obligations (net of additional borrowings, amounts refinanced and excluding the $1,210 million financing of the U.S. Securities Litigation settlement discussed below) during the period January 1, 2016 through the date of this filing using the proceeds from the divestiture of non-core assets, cash generated from our operations and improved working capital management; and

  • resolved many of the Company's legacy litigation matters originating back to 2015 and prior, including the most significant legacy legal matter, the U.S. Securities Litigation settlement discussed below, significantly reducing related possible disruptions and other uncertainties to our operations.

We believe that these and other positive actions we have taken to transform our Company, have properly focused our operations and improved our capital structure, and we also believe that, as a result of such actions, we are now presented with an opportunity to unlock additional value across our portfolio of assets by creating two highly attractive but dissimilar businesses.

Separation of the Bausch + Lomb Eye-Health Business

On August 6, 2020, we announced that we intend to separate our eye-health business into an independent publicly traded entity ("Bausch + Lomb") from the remainder of Bausch Health Companies Inc. The Separation will establish two separate companies that include:

  • • a fully integrated, pure play eye-health company built on the iconic Bausch + Lomb brand and long history of innovation; and

  • • a diversified pharmaceutical company with leading positions in gastroenterology, aesthetics/dermatology, neurology and international pharmaceuticals.

The Bausch + Lomb entity will consist of the Company's Bausch + Lomb Global Vision Care, Global Surgical, Global Consumer and Global Ophthalmology Rx businesses. The remaining pharmaceutical entity will comprise a diversified portfolio of our leading durable brands across the Salix, International Rx, Solta, neurology and medical dermatology businesses. We believe the Separation will unlock value across the two post-separation entities and create two highly attractive but dissimilar businesses.

As separate entities, management believes that each company will be better positioned to individually focus on its core businesses to drive additional growth, more effectively allocate capital and best manage its respective capital needs. Further, the Separation allows us and the market to compare the operating results of each entity with other "pure play" peer companies. Although management believes the Separation will bring out additional value, there can be no assurance that it will be successful in doing so. In connection with the Separation, we expect to realign and begin managing our operations in a manner consistent with the organizational structure of the two separate entities as proposed by the Separation during the first quarter of 2021. Accordingly, we expect to begin reporting our segment results to reflect the proposed realignment of our operating segments on a retrospective basis beginning with our first quarter of 2021.

We are in the process of addressing the organization, structure and pro forma capitalizations of the two entities post-separation. Based on our assessment, we believe that, by the end of 2021, we will be able to address the organizational matters and regulatory requirements needed to operate the businesses separately and put the Bausch + Lomb entity in position to become an independent publicly traded company. Management is also considering the form of the Separation and exploring a number of alternative capitalization structures in order to properly capitalize the entities post-separation. Although a public offering of a portion of the Bausch + Lomb business is among the alternate capital structures being considered, this Form 10-K does not constitute an offer of any securities of Bausch + Lomb for sale. There are considerations, approvals and conditions that will determine the ultimate timing and structure of this transaction, including regulatory approvals, final approval by our board of directors, any shareholder vote requirements that may be applicable, compliance with U.S. and Canadian securities laws and stock exchange rules, receipt of any applicable opinions and/or rulings with respect to the Canadian and U.S. federal income tax treatment of such transaction and determination of the pro forma capitalizations of the two entities. The failure to satisfy all of the required conditions could delay the completion of this transaction for a significant period of time or prevent it from occurring at all.

See Item 1A. "Risk Factors - Risk Relating to the Separation" of this Form 10-K for additional risks relating to the Separation.

Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic

In December 2019, a novel strain of the coronavirus disease, COVID-19, was identified in Wuhan, China. Since then, COVID-19 has spread to other parts of the world, including the United States, Canada and Europe, and was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (the "WHO") on March 11, 2020. As a global health care company, now more than ever, we remain focused on our mission of helping to improve people's lives with our health care products.

The unprecedented nature of the COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted the global economy. The COVID-19 pandemic and the rapidly evolving reactions of governments, private sector participants and the public in an effort to contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus and/or address its impacts have intensified and have had significant direct and indirect effects on businesses and commerce. This includes, but is not limited to, disruption to supply chains, employee base and transactional activity, facilities closures and production suspensions. The COVID-19 pandemic has also significantly increased demand for certain goods and services, such as pandemic-related medical services and supplies, alongside decreased demand for others, such as retail, hospitality, elective medical procedures and travel.

As the global economic landscape changes, there is a wide range of possible outcomes regarding the nature and timing of events related to the COVID-19 pandemic, each of which are highly dependent on variables that are difficult to predict. Developments, including the ultimate geographic spread and duration of the pandemic, the extent and duration of a resurgence, if any, new information concerning the severity of the COVID-19 virus, the effectiveness and intensity of measures to contain the COVID-19 virus, the availability and effectiveness of vaccines for the COVID-19 virus and the economic impact of the pandemic and the reactions to it, could have a significant adverse effect on our business, development programs, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. The extent of these developments and the related impacts are highly uncertain and many are outside the Company's control.

To date, the Company has been able to continue its operations with limited disruptions in supply and manufacturing. Although it is difficult to predict the broad macroeconomic effects that the COVID-19 pandemic will have on industries or individual companies, the Company has assessed the possible effects and outcomes of the pandemic on, among other things, its supply chain, customers and distributors, discounts and rebates, employee base, product sustainability, research and development efforts, product pipeline and consumer demand. As a result of our assessment, we immediately initiated profit protection measures to manage and reduce operating expenses and preserve cash during the COVID-19 pandemic. We have also taken actions to manage the level of our investment in support of certain existing products, anticipated launches and the expansion of our sales footprint in Europe. Postponing these investments may impact the extent and timing in achieving our longer-term forecasts for certain business units, however, we believe these actions will not have a material impact on the underlying value of the related businesses or their associated assets.

We are and will continue to closely monitor the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and related responses from governments and private sector participants on the Company, our customers, supply chain, third-party suppliers, project development timelines, costs, revenue, margins, liquidity and financial condition and our planned actions and responses to this pandemic.

We believe we have responded quickly to the human and commercial challenges brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic and that our early actions have, so far, enabled us to keep our employees safe and our supply lines largely intact and we believe these actions have laid the foundation for us to work our way through the uncertainties to come. Importantly, we believe that the steps we took over the last several years to manage our capital structure place us in a strong position to maintain sufficient liquidity to continue operations through an extended pandemic and we believe that our businesses will not see their long-term value diminished by this unprecedented situation.

Our Employees

Our employees' health, safety, and wellness are important to us. With the COVID-19 outbreak, a focus in 2020 was protecting the health and safety of our employees and their families. We broadened our existing remote work policies to enable our global employees to work from home wherever possible. In circumstances where remote work was not possible (such as at our manufacturing and distribution facilities) we implemented safety measures to ensure we prevented the spread of COVID-19 in the workplace, such as mandatory face coverings, social distancing, hand hygiene, plexiglass barriers, limited face-to-face meetings and other procedures as prescribed by global public health organizations, such as the WHO and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We also provided resources for our employees specifically in response to COVID-19, including launching a website - Collaborating in the New Normal - to help our employees encourage each other, lead with empathy and adapt as we navigate these unprecedented times.

Our Supply Chain and Manufacturing Facilities

Our objective is to maintain the uninterrupted availability of our products to meet the needs of patients, consumers and our customers. Business continuity plans and site-level biosecurity procedures are in place to ensure the well-being of our employees while we work to maintain the integrity of our supply chain. We have been successful in keeping our manufacturing facilities operational, although, due to shelter-in-place orders, our facilities in Milan and China were forced to temporarily close in March and April of 2020. These facilities were closed for only a short period of time and were immediately and continually operational once the shelter-in-place orders in the respective geographies were lifted.

As of the date of this filing, we have not experienced any disruption in our supply chain that would have a material impact on our results or operations. Our global supply chain team worked diligently to stay ahead of the challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic once it appeared in Asia. Although we have put in place procedures to mitigate the risks associated with closures and disruptions at our manufacturing facilities, the COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on our inventory levels and the manner in which we manage our inventories. From time to time during 2020, our inventory levels were higher than usual as a result of: (i) lower demand across multiple business units due to COVID-19 pandemic related matters, (ii) securing additional quantities of active pharmaceutical ingredients ("API") for our Xifaxan® products from our suppliers in Italy in contemplation of potential supply disruptions in that region, (iii) securing additional quantities of API for our Trulance® products which have longer procurement times and higher costs and (iv) the acquisition of additional quantities of certain products that were at the lower end of their optimal levels at December 31, 2019. During our third and fourth quarters, we continued to manage our inventory levels and effectively reduced our inventory levels to be in line with our pre-pandemic inventory levels as of December 31, 2020.

We have dual sources of API and intermediates for many of our products, the availability of which has not had, and at this time we do not expect will have, a material impact on our supply chain. With respect to our largest product, Xifaxan®, as of January 31, 2021, we have over four months' supply of Xifaxan® finished goods on hand and enough API to manufacture another seven months' supply of Xifaxan® finished goods. We also have open orders for API for Xifaxan® that we currently expect will arrive on schedule. However, if we were to experience a lack of availability of API for Xifaxan®, such disruption to our supply chain could have a significant adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We continue to monitor the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and take the actions appropriate to regulate our inventories at levels in line with the current supply and demand for our products. These actions have been effective at meeting our objectives, and presuming there continues to be increased availability of effective vaccines and any resurgence of the COVID-19 virus and variant strains thereof do not have a material adverse impact on efforts to contain the COVID-19 virus, we believe we can maintain our inventories at their pre-pandemic levels during 2021. We will continue to monitor our inventories and continue to take the appropriate actions and make the necessary adjustments to maintain the uninterrupted availability of our products to meet the needs of patients, consumers and our customers.

Our Product Pipeline

Our leadership team actively manages the Company's product pipeline to identify what we believe are innovative and realizable projects aligned with our core businesses that are expected to provide incremental and sustainable revenues and growth. During the COVID-19 pandemic, our R&D team remains focused on meeting these objectives in a timely manner; however, there are significant events and circumstances regarding the COVID-19 pandemic that may materially affect our R&D team's ability to do so, many of which are beyond the Company's control.

Due to the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic, most notably those attributable to "stay at home" and travel restrictions, certain of our R&D activities were forced to pause. Clinical trials that started prior to governmental shutdowns remained enrolled and existing patients have progressed, while new patient enrollments were paused as most trial sites were not able to accept new patients. However, during our third quarter of 2020, we saw the pace of new patient enrollments increase, getting close to their pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels in the U.S., and as a result have not had to make material changes to our development timelines.

We continue to monitor the timing and completion of our ongoing and anticipated clinical trial programs. As of the date of this filing, the delays in our clinical trials have not had a material impact on our operating results; however, a resurgence of the virus significant enough to necessitate reenacting certain social restrictions could result in unanticipated delays in our ability to conduct new patient enrollments. Other possible COVID-19 pandemic and resurgence related challenges include, but are not limited to, facility closures, delays by third-party service providers, deferrals of doctor visits, postponement of elective medical procedures and surgeries and changes in prioritization by the FDA and other regulatory authorities. Delays, if any, caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and a possible resurgence of the virus such as these and others will likely adversely affect the timely approval, launch and commercialization and the commercial success of our products, particularly those in early stage clinical trials, which could have a material adverse effect on our future operating results.

Our Liquidity

Our primary sources of liquidity are our cash and cash equivalents, cash collected from customers, funds as available from our revolving credit facility of $1,225 million due in June 2023 (the "2023 Revolving Credit Facility"), issuances of long-term debt and issuances of equity and equity-linked securities. We believe these sources will be sufficient to meet our current liquidity needs for at least twelve months from the date of issuance of this Form 10-K. Further, for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, we generated positive cash from operations of $1,111 million, $1,501 million and $1,501 million, respectively. Should our operating results during the COVID-19 pandemic materially suffer in comparison to our 2020, 2019 and 2018 operating results, we believe we would continue to generate sufficient cash flows from operations to meet our obligations in the ordinary course of business.

We have no debt maturities or mandatory amortization payments until 2024. Additionally, we have no outstanding borrowings, $104 million of issued and outstanding letters of credit and remaining availability of $1,121 million under our 2023 Revolving Credit Facility. In the event of a future, unexpected, need for near-term liquidity, our 2023 Revolving Credit Facility would be a source of funding for us. After reviewing the terms of our Restated Credit Agreement and considering a broad range of possible outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic, we expect that we will have access to capital under our 2023 Revolving Credit Facility across a broad range of scenarios in the event it is required.

See this Item "- Liquidity and Capital Resources - Long-term Debt" and Note 10, "FINANCING ARRANGEMENTS" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for additional discussion of these matters.

Our Operating Results

While we are taking actions to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on daily operations, the global response to the pandemic has and is expected to impact our operating results until the impacts of the pandemic subside, the timing of which is uncertain and may be dependent upon, among other matters, the availability and effectiveness of vaccines for the COVID-19 virus. The changing dynamics of the pandemic, related responses from governments and private sector participants and the precautionary measures taken by our customers and the health care patients and consumers we serve, are expected to impact the timing and amount of our revenues.

During the pandemic, the public has been advised to engage in certain "social restrictions" such as: (i) remaining at home or shelter-in-place, (ii) limiting social interaction, (iii) closing non-essential businesses and (iv) postponing certain surgical and elective medical procedures in order to prioritize/conserve available health care resources. During the three months ended March 31, 2020, these factors negatively impacted, most notably, the revenues of the Company's Global Vision Care and Global Surgical businesses in Asia where the COVID-19 pandemic originated. Beginning in March 2020, and throughout most of the second quarter of 2020, the Company experienced steeper declines in these revenues and the revenues of other businesses as social restrictions expanded worldwide, particularly in the U.S. and Europe. Social restrictions negatively impacted the Company's revenues for contact lenses, intraocular lenses, medical devices, surgical systems and certain pre- and post-operative eye-medications of its Global Ophtho Rx business, medical aesthetics and therapeutic products of its Global Solta business, and certain branded pharmaceutical products of its Salix, Ortho Dermatologics and Dentistry businesses, as the offices of many health care providers were closed and certain surgeries and elective medical procedures were deferred.

Our 2020 revenues were most negatively impacted during our second quarter by the social restrictions and other precautionary measures taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, as governments began lifting social restrictions, allowing offices of certain health care providers to reopen and certain surgeries and elective medical procedures to proceed, the negative trend in the revenues of certain businesses began to level off and stabilize prior to our third quarter of 2020. Our revenues for the three months ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were $2,213 million and $2,224 million, respectively, a decrease of $11 million. This decrease of less than 1% represents a continuing improving trend over the decreases in our year-over-year revenues for the three month periods ended June 30, 2020 and September 30, 2020 of 23% and 3%, respectively, and suggests that a recovery is underway. Presuming there continues to be increased availability of effective vaccines and any resurgence of the COVID-19 virus and variant strains thereof do not have a material adverse impact on efforts to contain the COVID-19 virus, the Company anticipates an ongoing, gradual global recovery from the significant macroeconomic and health care impacts of the pandemic that occurred during the first-half of 2020 and anticipates that its affected businesses could return to pre-pandemic levels during 2021. However, the rates of recovery for each business will vary by geography and will be dependent upon, among other things, the availability and effectiveness of vaccines for the COVID-19 virus, government responses, rates of economic recovery, precautionary measures taken by patients and customers, the rate at which remaining social restrictions are lifted and once lifted, the presumption that social restrictions will not be materially reenacted in the event of a resurgence of the virus and other actions taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

In the U.S., the recovery is progressing more quickly in our surgical, vision care and ophthalmology businesses, while our consumer business has been less impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic than any of our other businesses. Although certainsocial restrictions were lifted in Europe and Asia during the summer, recovery in these regions has been more gradual, as consumers have been slower to return to their pre-pandemic habits. Further, various geographies are reinstituting lockdowns or partial lockdowns in response to resurgence of the original COVID-19 virus and as variant strains, possibly more contagious than the original virus, have been identified. For instance, parts of Europe, such as England, Germany, France and Ireland, and parts of Canada have already announced returns to lockdowns of various lengths and have enacted or are considering enacting other social restrictions. In the U.S., variant strains of the virus have been identified and there has been a rise in the number of daily average COVID-19 cases heading into 2021 which suggests a possible resurgence in the U.S. and could lead to new lockdowns or other social restrictions.

As we monitor the direction and pace of the recovery in each business and geography, we are also continually monitoring the effectiveness of the profit protection measures we initiated to manage and reduce our operating expenses and preserve cash during the COVID-19 pandemic. These profit protection measures have been successful in expanding the profit margins in many of our businesses as referenced in the discussion of our operating results to follow. As the pace of recovery in each geography accelerates, we expect to allocate more resources to selling and other promotional activities to drive our return to sustainable revenue and profit growth. Therefore, if the recovery continues, we expect our operating expenses to increase in support of our existing products, product launches and products in development and expect to see our operating expenses in 2021 exceed our operating expenses in 2020 as a result.

We believe our diverse portfolio of durable products and strong brands has served us well through the COVID-19 pandemic and we continue to be well positioned to grow market share and return to growth as the world recovers. However, this remains a very fluid situation and we continue to monitor the availability and effectiveness of vaccines and any resurgence of the COVID-19 virus and variant strains thereof on our operations, business and primary goals. Given these circumstances, we continue to focus on: (i) revising our go-to-market and sales force strategies to address the changing business dynamics created by the COVID-19 pandemic, (ii) building out our e-commerce presence to enable us to reach customers in new ways, (iii) investing in our key promoted brands and product launches to increase market share, (iv) optimizing our cost structure and (v) looking for key trends in the market to meet changing consumer/patient needs and identify areas for investment and growth. We believe focusing on these priorities will best enable us to effectively manage the changing business dynamics created by the COVID-19 pandemic, best prepare us for a possible resurgence of the virus and any variant strains thereof and return us to growth once the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic substantially subside.

The changes in our segment revenues and segment profits, including the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic related matters for the year ended December 31, 2020, are discussed in further detail in the respective subsequent sections " - Reportable Segment Revenues and Profits".

The Company continually updates its near term forecasts for the changing facts and circumstances regarding the COVID-19 pandemic and believes that its long-term forecasted cash flows are not materially impacted by COVID-19 pandemic events and related factors. As more fully discussed in Note 8, "INTANGIBLE ASSETS AND GOODWILL" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements, as of December 31, 2020 the Company has not identified any impairments in connection with the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, if market conditions further deteriorate, if facts and circumstances regarding the COVID-19 pandemic escalate beyond management's expectations, or if the Company is unable to execute its strategies, it may be necessary to record impairment charges in the future and those charges can be material.

For a further discussion of these and other COVID-19 related risks, see Item 1A. "Risk Factors- Risk Relating to COVID-19" of this Form 10-K.

Focus on Core Businesses

Our strategy is to focus our business on core therapeutic classes that offer attractive growth opportunities. Within our chosen therapeutic classes, we prioritize durable products which we believe have the potential for strong operating margins and evidence of growth opportunities. We believe this strategy has reduced complexity in our operations and maximizes the value of our: (i) eye-health, (ii) GI and (iii) dermatology businesses, which collectively now represent a substantial portion of our revenues. We have found and continue to believe there is significant opportunity in these businesses and we believe our existing portfolio, commercial footprint and pipeline of product development projects position us to successfully compete in these markets and provide us with the greatest opportunity to build value for our shareholders. We identify these businesses as "core", meaning that we believe we are best positioned to grow and develop them. In order to continue to focus on our core businesses we have: (i) directed capital allocation to drive growth within our core businesses, (ii) made measurable progress in effectively managing our capital structure, (iii) increased our efforts to improve patient access and (iv) continued to invest in sustainable growth drivers to position us for long-term growth.

Direct Capital Allocation to Drive Growth Within Our Core Businesses

Our capital allocation is driven by our long-term growth strategies. We have been aggressively allocating resources to promote our core businesses globally through: (i) strategic acquisitions, (ii) research and development ("R&D") investment, (iii) strategic licensing agreements and (iv) strategic investments in our infrastructure. The outcome of this process allows us to better drive value in our product portfolio and generate operational efficiencies.

Strategic Acquisitions

We remain very selective when considering any acquisition and pursue only those opportunities that we believe align well with our current organization and strategic plan. We sometimes refer to these opportunities as "bolt on" acquisitions. In being selective, we seek to enter into only those acquisitions that provide us with significant synergies with our existing business, thereby minimizing risks to our core businesses and providing long-term growth opportunities. Recently, we have entered into transactions that although not immediately impactful to our operating results, are expected to be accretive to our bottom line in future years and contribute to our long-term growth strategies.

In September 2020, we entered into an agreement which provides the Company an option to acquire all ophthalmology assets of Allegro Ophthalmics, LLC ("Allegro") (the "Option"), a privately held biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of therapies that regulate integrin functions for the treatment of ocular diseases. Among the assets to be acquired, if the Option is exercised, is the worldwide rights to risuteganib (Luminate®), Allegro's lead investigational compound in retina, which is believed to simultaneously act on the angiogenic, inflammatory and mitochondrial metabolic pathways implicated in diseases such as intermediate dry Age-related Macular Degeneration ("AMD"). A U.S. Phase 2a study with risuteganib in intermediate dry AMD met its primary endpoint of vision recovery and Phase 3 testing is in the planning stages. We believe the addition of the ophthalmic assets of Allegro would significantly enhance our comprehensive portfolio of products for AMD and if approved, risuteganib may be the first treatment indicated to help reverse vision loss due to dry AMD and address a significant unmet medical need affecting millions of people globally.

In March 2019, we completed the acquisition of certain assets of Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc. ("Synergy") whereby we acquired the worldwide rights to the Trulance® (plecanatide) product, a once-daily tablet for adults with chronic idiopathic constipation, or CIC, and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, or IBS-C. We believe that the Trulance® product complements our existing Salix products and allows us to effectively leverage our existing GI sales force.

In February 2019, we acquired the U.S. rights to EM-100 (an investigational preservative-free formulation eye drop) from Eton Pharmaceuticals, Inc. On September 25, 2020, the Company announced that the FDA had approved Alaway® Preservative Free (ketotifen fumarate) ophthalmic solution, 0.035%, antihistamine eye drops (EM-100) as the first over-the-counter (OTC) preservative-free formulation eye drop approved to temporarily relieve itchy eyes due to pollen, ragweed, grass, animal hair and dander. Alaway® Preservative Free was launched in February 2021 and is expected to complement our broad range of Bausch + Lomb integrated eye-health products.

We are considering further acquisition opportunities within our core therapeutic areas, some of which could be material in size.

R&D Investment

Our R&D expenses for 2020, 2019 and 2018, were $452 million, $471 million and $413 million, respectively, and was approximately 6% as a percentage of revenue for 2020 and approximately 5% for 2019 and 2018. Our investment in R&D reflects our commitment to drive organic growth through internal development of new products, a pillar of our strategy. We continuously search for new product opportunities through internal development and strategic licensing agreements, that if successful, will allow us to leverage our commercial footprint, particularly our sales force, and supplement our existing product portfolio and address specific unmet needs in the market.

Our internal R&D organization focuses on the development of products through clinical trials. As of December 31, 2020, approximately 1,300 dedicated R&D and quality assurance employees in 23 R&D facilities were involved in our R&D efforts internally. We have approximately 200 projects in our global pipeline.

Certain core internal R&D projects that have received a significant portion of our R&D investment in current and prior periods are listed below. However, due to the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic, most notably those attributable to "stay at home" and travel restrictions, certain of our R&D activities were forced to pause. Clinical trials that started prior to governmental shutdowns remained enrolled and existing patients have progressed, while new patient enrollments were paused as most trial sites were not able to accept new patients. However, during our third quarter of 2020, we saw the pace of newpatient enrollments increase, getting close to their pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels in the U.S., and as a result have not had to make material changes to our development timelines.

We continue to monitor the timing and completion of our ongoing and anticipated clinical trial programs. As of the date of this filing, the delays in our clinical trials have not had a material impact on our operating results; however, a resurgence of the virus significant enough to necessitate reenacting certain social restrictions could result in unanticipated delays in our ability to conduct new patient enrollments. Other possible COVID-19 pandemic and resurgence related challenges include, but are not limited to, facility closures, delays by third-party service providers, deferrals of doctor visits, postponement of elective medical procedures and surgeries and changes in prioritization by the FDA and other regulatory authorities. Delays, if any, caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and a possible resurgence of the virus such as these and others will likely adversely affect the timely approval, launch and commercialization and the commercial success of our products, particularly those in early stage clinical trials. As a result, our estimates regarding the timing and success of our R&D efforts (some of which are set out below), including as it relates to study initiation, enrollment and completion, availability of study results, regulatory submissions, regulatory approvals and commercial launches, may change.

Bausch + Lomb

  • • Bausch + Lomb ULTRA® for Astigmatism - A monthly planned replacement contact lens for astigmatic patients. The Bausch + Lomb ULTRA® for Astigmatism lens was developed using the proprietary MoistureSeal® technology. In addition, the Bausch + Lomb ULTRA® for Astigmatism lens integrates an OpticAlign® design engineered for lens stability and to promote a successful wearing experience for the astigmatic patient. In 2017, we launched this product and the extended power range for this product. In 2018, we launched the Bausch + Lomb ULTRA® for Astigmatism -2.75 cylinder expanded SKU range.

  • • SiHy Daily - A silicone hydrogel daily disposable contact lens designed to provide clear vision throughout the day. In September 2018, we launched SiHy Daily in Japan under the branded name AQUALOX ONE DAY. In August 2020, we launched SiHy Daily in the U.S. under the branded name Bausch + Lomb INFUSE SiHy Daily Disposable contact lens. In the fourth quarter of 2020, SiHy Daily was launched in Australia, Hong Kong and Canada under the branded name Ultra® ONE DAY. SiHy Daily has also received regulatory approval for New Zealand, South Korea, Singapore and Malaysia, where it will be branded as Ultra® ONE DAY.

  • • Lumify® (brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solution, 0.025%) - An OTC eye drop developed as an ocular redness reliever. We launched this product in May 2018. Currently, we have several line extensions under development and expect Phase 3 clinical studies to commence in 2021.

  • • Biotrue® ONEday for Astigmatism - A daily disposable contact lens for astigmatic patients. The Biotrue® ONEday contact lens incorporates Surface Active Technology to provide a dehydration barrier. The Biotrue® ONEday for Astigmatism also includes evolved peri-ballast geometry to deliver stability and comfort for the astigmatic patient. We launched this product in December 2016 and launched an extended power range and further extended power ranges in 2017, 2018, 2019 and July 2020.

  • • New Ophthalmic Viscosurgical Device ("OVD") product - With a formulation to protect corneal endothelium during phacoemulsification process during a cataract surgery and to help chamber maintenance and lubrication during interocular lens delivery. In January 2020, we commenced an FDA clinical study for cohesive OVD. The clinical study has now achieved its enrollment target, despite COVID-19 slowdowns, and we expect results in the fourth quarter of 2021. In April 2020, we filed a Premarket Approval application for the dispersive OVD with the FDA.

  • • Lotemax® SM (loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic gel) 0.38% - A new formulation for the treatment of post-operative inflammation and pain following ocular surgery. Lotemax® SM is the lowest concentrated loteprednol ophthalmic corticosteroid indicated for the treatment of post-operative inflammation and pain following ocular surgery in the U.S. We launched this product in April 2019.

  • • enVista® Trifocal intraocular lens - An innovative lens design. We initiated an investigative device exemption study for this product in May 2018 and initiated the last phase of this three phase study in the fourth quarter of 2020.

  • • SimplifEYE preloaded intraocular lens injector platform for enVista interocular lens - We have received approvals from the European Union and Canada and received FDA clearance for the injector and launched this platform in October 2020.

  • • Extended depth of focus intraocular lens - Currently under development, however, the timing and completion of which has been delayed due to COVID-19 pandemic related matters. Once developed and if approved, we anticipate that this product could be launched in the second half of 2021.

  • • Bausch + Lomb ULTRA® monthly silicone hydrogel lens - Specifically designed to address the lifestyle and vision needs of patients with MoistureSeal® technology which maintains 95% of contact lens moisture for a full 16 hours. In the second quarter of 2020, Bausch + Lomb ULTRA® received a seven day extended wear indication approval from the European Union and received regulatory approval from the National Medical Products Administration in China.

  • • Bausch + Lomb ULTRA® Multifocal for Astigmatism contact lens - The first and only multifocal toric lens available as a standard offering in the eye care professional's fit set. The new monthly silicone hydrogel lens, which was specifically designed to address the lifestyle and vision needs of patients with both astigmatism and presbyopia, combines the Company's unique 3-Zone Progressive multifocal design with the stability of its OpticAlign® toric with MoistureSeal® technology to provide eye care professionals and their patients an advanced contact lens technology that offers the convenience of same-day fitting during the initial lens exam. Bausch + Lomb ULTRA® Multifocal for Astigmatism was launched in June 2019 and received European Union regulatory approval in the second quarter of 2020.

  • • Renu® Advanced Multi-Purpose Solution ("MPS") - Contains a triple disinfectant system that kills 99.9% of germs, and has a dual surfactant system that provides up to 20 hours of moisture. Renu® Advanced MPS is FDA cleared with indications for use to condition, clean, remove protein, disinfectant, rinse and store soft contact lenses including those composed of silicone hydrogels. Renu® Advanced MPS has gained regulatory approvals in Korea, India, Mexico, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and, during the second quarter of 2020, the European Union.

  • • Custom soft contact lens (Ultra Buttons) - A latheable silicone hydrogel button for custom soft specialty lenses including; Sphere, Toric, Multifocal, Toric Multifocal and irregular corneas. This project has been placed on hold as we reprioritize other projects in our pipeline.

  • • Zen Multifocal Scleral Lens for presbyopia - In January 2019, we launched this product exclusively available with Zenlens and Zen RC scleral lenses and will allow eye care professionals to fit presbyopic patients with irregular and regular corneas and those with ocular surface disease, such as dry eye. The Zen Multifocal Scleral Lens incorporates decentered optics, enabling the near power to be positioned over the visual axis.

  • • Tangible® Hydra-PEG® - A high-water polymer coating that is bonded to the surface of a contact lens and designed to address contact lens discomfort and dry eye. We launched this product in March 2019. Tangible® Hydra-PEG® coating technology in combination with our Boston® materials and Zenlens family of scleral lenses will help eye care professionals provide a better lens wearing experience for their patients with challenging vision needs.

Gastrointestinal

  • Rifaximin - Top line results from a Phase 2 study for the treatment of overt hepatic encephalopathy with a new formulation (SSD IR) of rifaximin showed a treatment benefit. Patients receiving 40 mg twice daily showed a statistically significant separation from placebo. The top line results from this Phase 2 study will help inform further research on potential new indications for rifaximin; this will include the commencement of a Phase 3 study (RED-C) in 2021 to seek an indication for the prevention of the first episode of Hepatic Encephalopathy. A separate new formulation is planned to be studied for the treatment of sickle cell anemia which rifaximin recently received orphan drug designation for and for which clinical trials are expected to commence in 2021.

  • • Rifaximin - Commencement of a Phase 2 study to evaluate rifaximin for the treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth or SIBO remains pending results from a new formulation study expected to be available in first half 2021. Development of a fit for purpose Patient Reported Outcomes tool for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is continuing in 2021.

  • • Rifaximin - We have entered into an agreement with Cedars Sinai Medical Center to evaluate a new formulation of rifaximin for the treatment of IBS-D. Two preclinical studies have been completed. A Proof of Concept study that was paused due to COVID-19 pandemic related factors has recommenced.

  • • Rifaximin - Our partner Alfasigma S.p.A. ("Alfasigma") is planning a Phase 2/3 study for the treatment of postoperative Crohn's disease using a novel rifaximin extended release formulation.

  • • Envive - We developed a probiotic supplement to address gastrointestinal disturbances. We launched this product in October 2020.

  • • Amiselimod (S1P modulator) - We are preparing to initiate a Phase 2 study to evaluate Amiselimod (S1P modulator) for the treatment of mild to moderate Ulcerative Colitis. We anticipate the clinical trial to commence in the first half of 2021.

Dermatology

  • • Duobrii® - The first and only topical lotion that contains a unique combination of halobetasol propionate and tazarotene for the treatment of plaque psoriasis in adults. Halobetasol propionate and tazarotene are each approved to treat plaque psoriasis when used separately, but the duration of halobetasol propionate is limited by FDA labeling constraints and the use of tazarotene can be limited due to tolerability concerns. However, the combination of these ingredients in Duobrii®, with a dual mechanism of action, allows for expanded duration of use, with reduced adverse events. We launched this product in June 2019.

  • • Arazlo® (tazarotene) Lotion, 0.045% (formerly IDP-123) - An acne product containing lower concentration of tazarotene in a lotion form to help reduce irritation while maintaining efficacy. We launched this product in June 2020.

  • • Internal Development Project ("IDP") 120 - An acne product with a fixed combination of mutually incompatible ingredients: benzoyl peroxide and tretinoin. Phase 3 clinical studies have been completed and met the primary endpoints. We are currently evaluating next steps for this project.

  • • IDP-126 - An acne product with a fixed combination of benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin phosphate and adapalene. Phase 3 clinical studies initiated in December 2019 were paused due to COVID-19 pandemic related factors, but resumed in June 2020. The first Phase 3 trial has been completed, and the second Phase 3 trial results are expected in 2021. We are currently evaluating next steps for this project.

  • • Clear + Brilliant® Touch - Next generation Clear + Brilliant® laser that is designed to deliver a customized and more comprehensive treatment protocol by providing patients of all ages and skin types the benefits of two wavelengths. We expect to launch this product during the first half of 2021.

  • • IDP-124 - A topical lotion product designed to treat moderate to severe atopic dermatitis, with pimecrolimus. Phase 3 clinical studies have been completed with one of the two studies meeting the primary endpoint. As a result, we have determined to no longer pursue this project.

Strategic Licensing Agreements

To supplement our internal R&D initiatives and to build-out and refresh our product portfolio, we also search for opportunities to augment our pipeline through arrangements that allow us to gain access to unique products and investigational treatments, by strategically aligning ourselves with other innovative product solutions.

In the normal course of business, the Company will enter into select licensing and collaborative agreements for the commercialization and/or development of unique products primarily in the U.S. and Canada. These products are sometimes investigational treatments in early stage development that target unique conditions. The ultimate outcome, including whether the product will be: (i) fully developed, (ii) approved by the FDA, (iii) covered by third-party payors or (iv) profitable for distribution is highly uncertain. Under certain agreements, the Company may be required to make payments contingent upon the achievement of specific developmental, regulatory, or commercial milestones.

In October 2020, we announced that we entered into two exclusive license agreements which present us with unique developmental opportunities to address the unmet need of treatment for myopia in children. The first of these two licensing agreements is with Eyenovia, Inc. for the development and commercialization in the United States and Canada of an investigational microdose formulation of atropine ophthalmic solution, which is being investigated for the reduction of pediatric myopia progression, also known as nearsightedness, in children ages 3-12. We expect to complete enrollment for a Phase 3 study during the second half of 2022. If approved by the FDA, we believe this investigational product could potentially change the treatment paradigm for the reduction of myopia progression in children. The second is an exclusive global licensing agreement with BHVI for a myopia control contact lens design developed by BHVI. The Company plans to pair BHVI's novel contact lens design with our leading contact lens technologies to develop potential contact lens treatments designed to slow the progression of myopia in children.

In December 2019, we announced that we had acquired an exclusive license from Novaliq GmbH for the commercialization and development in the U.S. and Canada of the investigational treatment NOV03 (perfluorohexyloctane), a first-in-class investigational drug with a novel mechanism of action to treat Dry Eye Disease ("DED") associated with Meibomian gland dysfunction ("MGD"). In an Open Label Safety study, NOV03 has achieved its enrollment target. We expect the readout of topline results from the first of two Phase 3 studies during the second half of 2021 and anticipate filing an NDA in 2022. If approved by the FDA, we believe the addition of this investigational treatment for DED will help build upon our strong portfolio of integrated eye-health products.

In October 2019, we acquired an exclusive license from Clearside Biomedical, Inc. ("Clearside") for the commercialization and development of Xipere (triamcinolone acetonide suprachoroidal injectable suspension) in the U.S. andCanada. Xipere is a proprietary suspension of the corticosteroid triamcinolone acetonide formulated for suprachoroidal administration via Clearside's proprietary SCS Microinjector that is being investigated as a targeted treatment of macular edema associated with uveitis. We are working closely with Clearside on the resubmission of the NDA for Xipere to the FDA.

In April 2019, we entered into two licensing agreements which present us with unique developmental opportunities to address unmet needs of individuals suffering with certain GI and liver diseases. The first of these two licensing agreements is with the University of California for certain intellectual property relating to an investigational compound targeting the pituitary adenylate cyclase receptor 1 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease ("NAFLD"), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis ("NASH") and other GI and liver diseases. The second is an exclusive licensing agreement with Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation to develop and commercialize MT-1303 (amiselimod), a late-stage oral compound that targets the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor that plays a role in autoimmune diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis. We have completed a thorough QTC study, which evaluated the cardiac safety profile of the compound. Topline results were positive and we expect to initiate a Phase 2 study in the first half of 2021.

On February 27, 2018, we announced that we entered into an exclusive license agreement with Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. ("Kaken") to develop and commercialize a new chemical entity, IDP-131 (KP-470), for the topical treatment of psoriasis. An early proof of concept study has been completed and the results did not meet expectations. As a result, the Company and Kaken have terminated the license agreement.

Strategic Investments in our Infrastructure

In support of our core businesses, we have and continue to make strategic investments in our infrastructure, the most significant of which are at our Waterford facility in Ireland, our Rochester facility in New York and our Lynchburg facility in Virginia.

To meet the forecasted demand for our Biotrue® ONEday lenses, in July 2017, we placed into service a $175 million multi-year strategic expansion project of the Waterford facility. The emphasis of the expansion project was to: (i) develop new technology to manufacture, automatically inspect and package contact lenses, (ii) bring that technology to full validation and (iii) increase the size of the Waterford facility.

To address the expected global demand for our Bausch + Lomb ULTRA® contact lens, in December 2017, we completed a multi-year, $200 million strategic upgrade to our Rochester facility. The upgrade increased production capacity in support of our Bausch + Lomb Ultra® and SiHy Daily AQUALOX product lines and better supports the production of other well-established contact lenses, such as our PureVision®, PureVision®2 (SVS, Toric, and Multifocal), SofLens® 38 and SilSoft®.

To address the expected global demand for our SiHy Daily disposable contact lenses, in November 2018, we initiated $300 million of additional expansion projects to add multiple production lines to our Rochester and Waterford facilities. SiHy Daily disposable contact lenses were launched in the U.S. in September 2020.

To further help us meet the anticipated demand of our contact lenses, in 2020, we initiated an expansion of the Company's Lynchburg distribution center. The new facility is expected to create new jobs over the next five years and expand the overall site to 190,000 square feet, which will provide distribution capabilities for medical devices, primarily contact lens products, and be the main point of distribution for these products in the U.S.

We believe the investments in our Waterford, Rochester and Lynchburg facilities and related expansion of labor forces further demonstrates the growth potential we see in our Bausch + Lomb products and our eye-health business.

Effectively Managing Our Capital Structure

We continue to effectively manage our capital structure by: (i) reducing our debt through repayments, (ii) extending the maturities of debt through refinancing and (iii) improving our credit ratings.

Debt Repayments - Excluding the impact of the $1,210 million financing of the U.S. Securities Litigation settlement discussed below, we have been able to repay (net of additional borrowings) over $8,600 million of long-term debt during the period January 1, 2016 through the date of this filing using the net cash proceeds from divestitures of non-core assets, cash generated from operations and cash generated from tighter working capital management. This includes approximately $900 million of repayments with cash on hand and cash generated from operations during 2020.

2018 Refinancing Transactions - In March, June and November 2018, we accessed the credit markets and completed a series of transactions, whereby we extended approximately $8,300 million in aggregate maturities of certain debt obligations due to mature in March 2020 through July 2022, out to June 2025 through January 2027. As part of these transactions we obtained less stringent loan financial maintenance covenants under our Senior Secured Credit Facilities and extended commitments under our revolving credit facility by more than three years by replacing our then-existing revolving creditfacility, set to expire in April 2020 with a revolving credit facility of $1,225 million due in June 2023 (the "2023 Revolving Credit Facility").

2019 Refinancing Transactions - In March, May and December 2019, we accessed the credit markets and completed a series of transactions, whereby, we extended approximately $4,200 million in aggregate maturities of certain debt obligations due to mature in December 2021 through May 2023, out to January 2027 through January 2030.

Financing of Litigation Settlement - In December 2019, we announced that we had agreed to resolve the putative securities class action litigation in the U.S. (the "U.S. Securities Litigation") for $1,210 million. Final court approval of this settlement was granted in January 2021. As part of the settlement, the Company and the other settling defendants admitted no liability as to the claims against it and deny all allegations of wrongdoing. Subject to an objector's appeal of the Court's final approval order, this settlement resolves and discharges all claims against the Company in the class action, and as a result resolves the most significant of the Company's remaining legacy legal matters and eliminates a material uncertainty regarding our Company.

To finance the settlement of the U.S. Securities Litigation and extend certain debt maturities, on December 30, 2019, we accessed the credit markets and issued: (i) $1,250 million aggregate principal amount of 5.00% Senior Unsecured Notes due January 2028 (the "5.00% January 2028 Unsecured Notes") and (ii) $1,250 million aggregate principal amount of 5.25% Senior Unsecured Notes due January 2030 (the "January 2030 Unsecured Notes") in a private placement. The proceeds and cash on hand were used to: (i) redeem $1,240 million of May 2023 Unsecured Notes on January 16, 2020, (ii) finance amounts owed under the Company's $1,210 million settlement agreement relating to the U.S. Securities Litigation (which is subject to an objector's appeal of the final court approval), the full $1,210 million of which was paid into an escrow fund in accordance with the related settlement agreement and is included in our Restricted cash balance as of December 31, 2020, and (iii) pay all fees and expenses associated with these transactions (collectively, the "December 2019 Financing and Refinancing Transactions"). Through this financing, we have in effect extended the payments of the pending litigation settlement of $1,210 million out to 2028 and 2030, without negatively impacting our working capital available for operations.

2020 Refinancing Transactions - In May and December 2020, we accessed the credit markets and completed a series of transactions, whereby we extended $3,250 million in aggregate maturities of certain debt obligations due to mature in 2022 and 2023 out to 2029 through 2031 and $250 million in aggregate amortization payments due in 2022 out to 2029. In addition to extending $3,500 million in payments due in 2022 and 2023 to 2029 through 2031, the refinancing transactions replaced secured debt of $1,500 million with unsecured debt. This provides us with more secured debt capacity under our Restated Credit Agreement and existing indentures if the market for unsecured debt in the future is less favorable. Further, by replacing $1,500 million of secured debt with unsecured debt we now have additional room under the debt maintenance covenant of our 2023 Revolving Credit Facility that requires us to maintain a first lien net leverage ratio of not greater than 4.00 to 1.00. The refinancing transactions also repaid in full €1,500 million of debt denominated in euros, thereby reducing our exposure to fluctuations in the value of the euro.

See Note 10, "FINANCING ARRANGEMENTS" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for the details of our debt portfolio as of December 31, 2020 and 2019.

The debt repayments and refinancing transactions outlined above have allowed us to: (i) improve our credit ratings, (ii) finance amounts owed under the Company's previously announced $1,210 million settlement agreement relating to the U.S. Securities Litigation (which is subject to an objector's appeal of the final court approval) without negatively impacting our working capital available for operations, (iii) extend maturities of certain debt obligations due out to the year 2025 and beyond, (iv) satisfy all debt mandatory amortization payments and maturities until 2024 and (v) reduce our exposure to fluctuations in the value of the euro.

Our prepayment of debt and refinancing transactions over the last four years translate into lower repayments of principal over the next four years, which, in turn, we believe will permit more cash flows to be directed toward developing our core assets, identifying new product opportunities and repaying additional debt amounts. The mandatory scheduled principal repayments of our debt obligations as of December 31, 2020, were as follows:

(in millions)

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

Total

$

-

$

-

$

-

$ 2,291

$10,632

$ 1,500

$ 2,250

$ 2,012

$ 3,250

$ 1,250

$ 1,000

$24,185

In addition, as a result of the changes in our debt portfolio, approximately 80% of our debt is fixed rate debt as of December 31, 2020, as compared to approximately 60% as of January 1, 2016. The weighted average stated interest rate of the Company's outstanding debt as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 was 6.02% and 6.21%, respectively.

We continue to monitor our capital structure and to evaluate other opportunities to simplify our business and improve our capital structure, giving us the ability to better focus on our core businesses. While we anticipate focusing any future divestiture activities on non-core assets, consistent with our duties to our shareholders and other stakeholders, we will consider dispositions in core areas that we believe represent attractive opportunities for the Company. Also, the Company regularly evaluates market conditions, its liquidity profile and various financing alternatives for opportunities to enhance its capital structure. If the Company determines that conditions are favorable, the Company may refinance or repurchase existing debt or issue additional debt, equity or equity-linked securities.

See Note 10, "FINANCING ARRANGEMENTS" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for further details and this Item "- Liquidity and Capital Resources - Liquidity and Debt - Long-term Debt" for additional discussion of these matters. Cash requirements for future debt repayments including interest can be found in this Item "- Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements and Contractual Obligations."

Improve Patient Access

Improving patient access to our products, as well as making them more affordable, is a key element of our business strategy.

Patient Access and Pricing Committee - In 2016, we formed the Patient Access and Pricing Committee which is responsible for setting, changing and monitoring the pricing of our products and evaluating contract arrangements that determine the placement of our products on drug formularies. The Patient Access and Pricing Committee considers new to market product pricing, price changes and their impact across channels on patient accessibility and affordability. The Patient Access and Pricing Committee remains committed to limiting the average annual price increase for our branded prescription pharmaceutical products to no greater than single digits and has reaffirmed this commitment for 2021. These pricing changes and programs could affect the average realized pricing for our products and may have a significant impact on our company revenue and profit.

Bausch Health Assistance Program - We are committed to supporting patients who have lost employment health benefits due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and because it is important to continue prescribed treatments, we are proud to offer certain of our prescription medicines through our Bausch Health Assistance Program. In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, some people have financial obstacles that keep them from obtaining and continuing their prescribed treatments. The purpose of the Bausch Health Patient Assistance Program is to provide eligible unemployed patients in the U.S., who have lost their health insurance due to the COVID-19 pandemic, with certain of our prescription products although their financial circumstances or insurance status may otherwise interfere with their ability to do so. If approved, patients receive their Bausch Health Companies Inc. prescription product(s) at no cost to them for up to one year, and may be able to reapply to the program annually if they continue to meet eligibility requirements and have a valid prescription.

Cash-pay Prescription Program - In February 2019, we launched Dermatology.com, a cash-pay product acquisition program offering certain branded Ortho Dermatologics products directly to patients. In March 2020, the name Dermatology.com was removed as the cash-pay product program name, with the name Dermatology.com limited to only online usage, including future digital teledermatology and e-commerce offerings. The cash-pay program is designed to address the affordability and availability of certain branded dermatology products, when insurers and pharmacy benefit managers are no longer offering those branded prescription pharmaceutical products under their designated pharmacy benefit offerings.

Walgreens Fulfillment Arrangements - In the beginning of 2016, we launched a brand fulfillment arrangement with Walgreen Co. ("Walgreens"). Under the terms of the brand fulfillment arrangement, as amended in July 2019, we made certain dermatology and ophthalmology products available to eligible patients through patient access and co-pay assistance programs at Walgreens U.S. retail pharmacy locations, as well as participating independent retail pharmacies. Our products available under this fulfillment agreement include certain Ortho Dermatologics products, including our Duobrii®, Bryhali®, Arazlo®, Jublia®, Luzu®, Retin-A Micro® Gel and Onexton® and select branded prescription pharmaceutical products included in our cash-pay prescription program, and certain ophthalmology products, including our Vyzulta®, Besivance®, Lotemax®, Alrex®, Prolensa®, Bepreve® and Zylet® products.

Invest in Sustainable Growth Drivers to Position us for Long-Term Growth

We are constantly challenged by the changing dynamics of our industry to innovate and bring new products to market. We have divested certain businesses where we saw limited growth opportunities, so that we can be more aggressive inredirecting our R&D spend and other corporate investments to innovate within our core businesses where we believe we can be most profitable and where we aim to be an industry leader.

We believe that we have a well-established product portfolio that is diversified within our core businesses and provides a sustainable revenue stream to fund our operations. However, our future success is also dependent upon our ability to continually refresh our pipeline, to provide a rotation of product launches that meet new and changing demands and replace other products that have lost momentum. We believe we have a robust pipeline that not only provides for the next generation of our existing products, but is also poised to bring new products to market.

Invest in our Eye-Health Business - As part of our global Bausch + Lomb business strategy, we continually look for key trends in the eye-health market to meet changing consumer/patient needs and identify areas for investment to extend our market share through new launches and effective pricing.

For instance, there is an increasing rate of myopia, and importantly, myopia as a potential risk factor for glaucoma, macular degeneration and retinal detachment. We continue to see increased demand for new eye-health products that address conditions brought on by factors such as increased screen time, lack of outdoor activities and academic pressures, as well as conditions brought on by an aging population (for example, as more and more baby-boomers in the U.S. are reaching the age of 65). To extend our market share in eye-health, we continually seek to identify new products tailored to address these key trends for development internally with our own R&D team to generate organic growth. Recent product launches include Biotrue® ONEday daily disposable contact lenses, the next generation of Bausch + Lomb ULTRA® contact lenses, SiHy Daily contact lenses, Lumify® (an eye redness treatment), Vyzulta® (a pressure lowering eye drop for patients with angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension) and Ocuvite® Eye Performance (vitamins to protect the eye from stressors such as sunlight and blue light emitted from digital devices).

We also license selective molecules or technology in leveraging our own R&D expertise through development, as well as seek out external product development opportunities. As previously discussed, we acquired global exclusive licenses for a myopia control contact lens design developed by BHVI, which we plan to pair with our leading contact lens technologies to develop potential contact lens treatments designed to slow the progression of myopia in children, and for the commercialization and development in the U.S. and Canada of: a microdose formulation of atropine ophthalmic solution, which is being investigated for the reduction of pediatric myopia progression in children ages 3-12; Xipere which, if approved by the FDA, will be the first treatment for patients suffering from macular edema associated with uveitis; and NOV03, an investigational drug with a novel mechanism of action to treat DED associated with MGD. We also acquired the U.S. rights to EM-100, which was recently approved by the FDA as Alaway® Preservative-Free and is the first OTC preservative-free formulation eye drop for the temporary relief of itchy eyes due to pollen, ragweed, grass, animal hair, and dander in adults and children 3 years of age and older. Recently, we entered into an agreement which provides the Company an option to acquire all ophthalmology assets of Allegro, including risuteganib (Luminate®), an investigational compound in retina, which is believed to simultaneously act on the angiogenic, inflammatory and mitochondrial metabolic pathways implicated in diseases such as intermediate dry AMD. A U.S. Phase 2a study with risuteganib in intermediate dry AMD met its primary endpoint of vision recovery and Phase 3 testing is in the planning stages. We believe investments in these investigational treatments, if approved by the FDA, will complement, and help build upon, our strong portfolio of integrated eye-health products.

As previously discussed, we have also made strategic investments in our infrastructure, the most significant of which are at our Waterford facility in Ireland to meet the forecasted demand for our Biotrue® ONEday lenses, our Rochester facility in New York to address the expected global demand for our Bausch + Lomb ULTRA® contact lens and our Lynchburg facility in Virginia to be our main point of distribution for medical devices in the U.S. During late 2018, we began investing in additional expansion projects at the Waterford and Rochester facilities in order to address the expected global demand for our SiHy Daily disposable contact lenses, which we launched in the U.S. in August 2020, under the branded name Bausch + Lomb INFUSE SiHy Daily Disposable contact lens.

We believe our recent product launches, licensing arrangements and the investments in our Waterford, Rochester and Lynchburg facilities demonstrate the growth potential we see in our Bausch + Lomb products and our eye-health business and that these investments will position us to further extend our market share in the eye-health market.

Leveraging our Salix Infrastructure - We strongly believe in our GI product portfolio and we have implemented initiatives, including increasing our marketing presence and identifying additional opportunities outside our existing GI portfolio, to further capitalize on the value of the infrastructure we built around these products to extend our market share.

In the first quarter of 2017, we hired approximately 250 trained and experienced sales force representatives and managers to create, bolster and sustain deep relationships with primary care physicians ("PCP"). With approximately 70% of IBS-D patients initially presenting symptoms to a PCP, we continue to believe that the dedicated PCP sales force is better positioned to reach more patients in need of IBS-D treatment.

This initiative provided us with positive results, as we experienced consistent growth in demand for our GI products throughout 2017 through 2020, which was evident by our growth in Salix revenues of 22% when comparing 2020 to 2017. These results encouraged us to seek out ways to bring out further value through leveraging our existing sales force and, in the later portion of 2018 and in 2019, we identified and executed on certain opportunities which we describe below.

Strategic Acquisition - As previously discussed, in March 2019, we completed the acquisition of certain assets of Synergy, whereby we acquired the worldwide rights to the Trulance® product, a once-daily tablet for adults with chronic idiopathic constipation, or CIC and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, or IBS-C. We believe that the Trulance® product complements our existing Salix products and allows us to effectively leverage our existing GI sales force.

Licensing Arrangements - As previously discussed, in April 2019, we entered into two licensing agreements. The first is for certain intellectual property relating to an investigational compound targeting the pituitary adenylate cyclase receptor 1 in NAFLD, NASH and other GI and liver diseases. The second is to develop and commercialize MT-1303 (amiselimod), a late-stage oral compound that targets the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor that plays a role in autoimmune diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis. These licenses present unique developmental opportunities to address unmet needs of individuals suffering with certain GI and liver diseases and if developed and approved by the FDA, will allow us to further utilize our existing sales force and infrastructure to extend our market share in the future and create value.

Investment in Next Generation Formulations - Revenues from our Xifaxan® product increased approximately 2%, 22% and 22% in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. In order to extend growth in Xifaxan®, we continue to directly invest in next generation formulations of Xifaxan® and rifaximin, the principal semi-synthetic antibiotic used in our Xifaxan® product. In addition to one R&D program in progress, we have three other R&D programs planned for next generation formulations of Xifaxan® (rifaximin) which address new indications.

We believe that the acquisition and licensing opportunities discussed above will be accretive to our business by providing us access to products and investigational compounds that are a natural pairing to our Xifaxan® business, allowing us to effectively leverage our existing infrastructure and sales force. We believe these opportunities, coupled with our investment in next generation formulations, will allow our GI franchise to continue to further extend market share.

Position the Ortho Dermatologics Business for Growth - In 2018, we realigned our Solta aesthetics business and combined it with our medical dermatology business, creating a complete dermatology portfolio. We continue to make investments in our Solta portfolio and anticipate building out our Solta sales force, particularly in Europe to address the growing demand. Our Ortho Dermatologics business continues to work towards improving the treatment options for medical dermatology patients. In light of persistent insurance coverage pressures within the United States for patients needing topical acne and psoriasis products, we are exploring both strategic e-commerce and partnership expansion opportunities which can enable increased accessibility for patients. We are continuing to invest in our on market products and are evaluating various opportunities for our key pipeline products.

In support of the complete dermatology portfolio, we have taken and are taking a number of actions that we believe will help our efforts to stabilize our dermatology business. These actions include: (i) rebranding our dermatology business including our aesthetics business, (ii) appointing a new leader, (iii) making key investments in our core medical device and dermatological products portfolios, (iv) right sizing and reorganizing our dermatology sales force across roughly 195 sales territories, as we work to rebuild relationships with prescribers of our products and (v) improving patient access to our Ortho Dermatologics products through our cash-pay prescription program previously discussed.

Investment in Our Core Dermatology Portfolio - We have made significant investments to build out our aesthetics, psoriasis and acne product portfolios, which are the markets within dermatology where we see the greatest opportunities to extend our market share.

Aesthetics - In 2017, we launched our Next Generation Thermage FLX® product in the U.S., a fourth-generation non-invasive treatment option using a radiofrequency platform designed to optimize key functional characteristics and improve patient outcomes. During 2018 and 2019, Next Generation Thermage FLX® was launched in Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, China, Thailand, Vietnam, and Australia as part of our Solta medical aesthetic devices portfolio. These launches have been successful as Next Generation Thermage FLX® revenues for 2020 and 2019 were $142 million and $77 million, respectively. We expect additional launches of Next Generation Thermage FLX® in Europe in the near term, paced by country-specific regulatory registrations.

Psoriasis - As the number of reported cases of psoriasis in the U.S. has increased, we believe there is a need to make further investments in this market in order to maximize our opportunity and supplement our current psoriasis product portfolio. We launched Duobrii® in June 2019 and launched Bryhali® in November 2018. We expect thatDuobrii® and Bryhali® will align well with our existing topical portfolio of psoriasis treatments and, supplemented by our injectable biologic products, such as Siliq® (launched in July 2017), will provide a diverse choice of psoriasis treatments to doctors and patients.

Acne - In support of our established acne product portfolio, we have developed and launched several products, which includes Arazlo® (tazarotene) Lotion (launched in June 2020), Altreno® (launched in the U.S. in October 2018), the first lotion (rather than a gel or cream) product containing tretinoin for the treatment of acne, and Retin-A Micro® 0.06% (launched in January 2018). We also have two other unique acne projects in our pipeline that, if approved by the FDA, we believe will further innovate and advance the treatment of acne.

Bolstered by new product launches in our aesthetics, psoriasis and acne product lines and the potential of other products under development, our experienced dermatology sales leadership team, our sales force and our cash-pay prescription program, we believe we have set the groundwork to position the Ortho Dermatologics business for future growth.

Business Trends

In addition to the actions previously outlined, the events described below have affected and may affect our business trends:

Health Care Reform

The U.S. federal and state governments continue to propose and pass legislation designed to regulate the health care industry. In March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the "ACA") was enacted in the U.S. The ACA contains several provisions that impact our business, including: (i) an increase in the minimum Medicaid rebate to states participating in the Medicaid program, (ii) the extension of the Medicaid rebates to Managed Care Organizations that dispense drugs to Medicaid beneficiaries, (iii) the expansion of the 340(B) Public Health Services drug pricing program, which provides outpatient drugs at reduced rates, to include additional hospitals, clinics and health care centers and (iv) a fee payable to the federal government based on our prior-calendar-year share relative to other companies of branded prescription drug sales to specified government programs.

In addition, in 2013 federal subsidies began to be phased in for brand-name prescription drugs filled in the Medicare Part D coverage gap. The ACA also included provisions designed to increase the number of Americans covered by health insurance. In 2014, the ACA's private health insurance exchanges began to operate. The ACA also allows states to expand Medicaid coverage with most of the expansion's cost paid for by the federal government.

For 2020, 2019 and 2018, we incurred costs of $21 million, $20 million and $36 million, respectively, related to the annual fee assessed on prescription drug manufacturers and importers that sell branded prescription drugs to specified U.S. government programs (e.g., Medicare and Medicaid). For 2020, 2019 and 2018, we also incurred costs of $131 million, $137 million and $90 million, respectively, on Medicare Part D utilization incurred by beneficiaries whose prescription drug costs cause them to be subject to the Medicare Part D coverage gap (i.e., the "donut hole").

The financial impact of the ACA will be affected by certain additional developments over the next few years, including pending implementation guidance and certain health care reform proposals. Additionally, policy efforts designed specifically to reduce patient out-of-pocket costs for medicines could result in new mandatory rebates and discounts or other pricing restrictions. Also, it is possible, as discussed further below, that legislation will be passed by Congress repealing the ACA in whole or in part. Adoption of legislation at the federal or state level could materially affect demand for, or pricing of, our products.

In 2018, we faced uncertainties due to federal legislative and administrative efforts to repeal, substantially modify or invalidate some or all of the provisions of the ACA. However, we believe there is low likelihood of repeal of the ACA, given the recent failure of the Senate's multiple attempts to repeal various combinations of ACA provisions and the recent change in administration. There is no assurance that any replacement or administrative modifications of the ACA will not adversely affect our business and financial results, particularly if the replacing legislation reduces incentives for employer-sponsored insurance coverage, and we cannot predict how future federal or state legislative or administrative changes relating to the reform will affect our business.

In 2019, the U.S. Health and Human Services Administration announced a preliminary plan to allow for the importation of certain lower-cost drugs from Canada. The preliminary plan excludes insulin, biological drugs, controlled substances and intravenous drugs. The preliminary plan relies on individual states to develop proposals for safe importation of those drugs from Canada and submit those proposals to the federal government for approval. Although the preliminary plan has some support from the prior administration, at this time, studies to evaluate the related costs and benefits, evaluate the reasonableness of the logistics, and measure the public reaction of such a plan have not been performed. While we do not believe this will havea significant impact on our future cash flows, we cannot provide assurance as to the ultimate context, timing, effect or impact of such a plan.

In 2019, the Government of Canada (Health Canada) published in the Canadian Gazette the new pricing regulation for patented drugs. These regulations will become effective on July 1, 2021. The new regulations will change the mechanics of establishing the pricing for products submitted for approval after August 21, 2019; they will also require full transparency of discounts agreed with provincial bodies; and finally, will change the number and composition of reference countries used to determine if a drug's price is excessive. While we do not believe this will have a significant impact on our future cash flows, as additional facts materialize, we cannot provide assurance as to the ultimate content, timing, effect or impact of such regulations.

In July 2020, U.S. President Donald Trump signed four Executive Orders related to drug pricing, including orders addressing: (i) Part D rebate reform, (ii) the provision of deeply discounted insulin and/or an EpiPen to patients of Federally Qualified Health Centers, (iii) drug importation from Canada and (iv) most favored nation pricing for Medicare. In November 2020, U.S. President Donald Trump announced the Most Favored Nation Model for Medicare Part B Payment which was to be implemented by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Innovation Center on January 1, 2021; however, it has not been implemented, as it is currently being challenged in court. It is also uncertain whether the Biden administration intends to reverse these measures or adopt similar policy initiatives. However, President Biden and several members of the current U.S. Congress have indicated that lowering drug prices is a legislative and political priority, and some have introduced proposals that seek to address drug pricing. We are currently reviewing those Executive Orders and the Most Favored Nation Model, the impact of which is uncertain at this time.

Other legislative efforts relating to drug pricing have been enacted and others have been proposed at the U.S. federal and state levels. For instance, certain states have enacted legislation related to prescription drug pricing transparency. Several states have passed importation legislation and Florida is working with the U.S. government to implement an importation program from Canada. We also anticipate that Congress, state legislatures and third-party payors may continue to review and assess alternative health care delivery and payment systems and may in the future propose and adopt legislation or policy changes or implementations affecting additional fundamental changes in the health care delivery system. We continually review newly enacted and proposed U.S. federal and state legislation, as well as proposed rulemaking and guidance published by the Department of Health and Human Services and the FDA; however, at this time, it is unclear the effect these matters may have on our businesses.

Generic Competition and Loss of Exclusivity

Certain of our products face the expiration of their patent or regulatory exclusivity in 2021 or in later years, following which we anticipate generic competition of these products. In addition, in certain cases, as a result of negotiated settlements of some of our patent infringement proceedings against generic competitors, we have granted licenses to such generic companies, which will permit them to enter the market with their generic products prior to the expiration of our applicable patent or regulatory exclusivity. Finally, for certain of our products that lost patent or regulatory exclusivity in prior years, we anticipate that generic competitors may launch in 2021 or in later years. Following a loss of exclusivity ("LOE") of and/or generic competition for a product, we would anticipate that product sales for such product would decrease significantly shortly following the LOE or entry of a generic competitor. Where we have the rights, we may elect to launch an authorized generic of such product (either ourselves or through a third-party) prior to, upon or following generic entry, which may mitigate the anticipated decrease in product sales; however, even with launch of an authorized generic, the decline in product sales of such product would still be expected to be significant, and the effect on our future revenues could be material.

A number of our products already face generic competition. Prior to and during 2020, in the U.S., these products include, among others, Ammonul®, Apriso®, Benzaclin®, Bupap®, Cuprimine®, Demser®, Edecrin®, Elidel®, Glumetza®, Istalol®, Isuprel®, Locoid® Lotion, Lotemax® Suspension, Mephyton®, Migranal®, MoviPrep®, Nitropress®, Solodyn®, Syprine®, Timoptic® in Ocudose®, Uceris® Tablet, Virazole®, Wellbutrin XL®, Xenazine®, Zegerid® and Zovirax® cream. In Canada, these products include, among others, Glumetza®, Wellbutrin® XL and Zovirax® ointment.

2020 LOE Branded Products - Branded products that began facing generic competition in the U.S. during 2020 include, Migranal® and MoviPrep®. In aggregate, these products accounted for less than 1% of our total revenues in 2020. While certain of these products have already begun experiencing an adverse impact on volume and/or pricing as a result of the entry into the market of generic competition, we are unable to predict the complete magnitude or timing of this impact.

2021 through 2025 LOE Branded Products - Based on current patent expiration dates, settlement agreements and/or competitive information, we have identified branded products that we believe could begin facing potential LOE and/or generic competition in the U.S. during the years 2021 through 2025. These products and year of expected LOE include, but are not limited to, Clindagel® (2021), Lotemax® Gel (2021), Noritate® (2021), Targretin® Gel (2022), Xerese® (2022) and certain other products that are subject to settlement agreements which could impact their exclusivity during the years 2021 through 2025. Inaggregate, these products accounted for 2% of our total revenues in 2020. These dates may change based on, among other things, successful challenge to our patents, settlement of existing or future patent litigation and at-risk generic launches. We believe the entry into the market of generic competition generally would have an adverse impact on the volume and/or pricing of the affected products, however we are unable to predict the magnitude or timing of this impact.

2021 OTC Product Patent Expiry - PreserVision® AREDS and PreserVision® AREDS 2 are OTC eye vitamin formulas for those with moderate-to-advanced age-related macular degeneration. PreserVision® products accounted for 3% of our total revenues in 2020. The PreserVision® U.S. formulation patent expires in 2021, but a patent covering methods of using the formulation remains in force until 2026. While the Company cannot predict the magnitude or timing of the impact from its patent expiry, this is an OTC product and thus, the impact is not expected to be as significant as the LOE of a branded pharmaceutical product.

In addition, for a number of our products (including Relistor®, Plenvu®, Xifaxan® 550mg, Bryhali®, Duobrii® and Jublia® in the U.S. and Jublia® in Canada), we have commenced (or anticipate commencing) and have (or may have) ongoing infringement proceedings against potential generic competitors in the U.S. and Canada. If we are not successful in these proceedings, we may face increased generic competition for these products.

Bryhali® Lotion, 0.01% (Glenmark) - In December 2019, the Company announced that it had reached an agreement to resolve the outstanding intellectual property litigation with Glenmark Pharmaceuticals, Ltd. ("Glenmark"). Under the terms of the agreement, the Company will grant Glenmark a non-exclusive license to its intellectual property relating to Bryhali® in the U.S. and, beginning in 2026 (or earlier under certain circumstances), Glenmark will have the option to market a royalty-free generic version of Bryhali® Lotion, should it receive approval from the FDA. The parties have agreed to dismiss all litigation related to Bryhali® Lotion, and all intellectual property protecting Bryhali® Lotion remains intact.

Bryhali® Lotion, 0.01% (Perrigo) - On March 20, 2020, the Company received a Notice of Paragraph IV Certification from Perrigo Israel Pharmaceuticals, Ltd. ("Perrigo"), in which Perrigo asserted that certain U.S. patents, each of which is listed in the FDA's Orange Book for Bryhali® (halobetasol propionate) lotion, 0.01% are either invalid, unenforceable and/or will not be infringed by the commercial manufacture, use or sale of Perrigo's generic halobetasol propionate lotion, for which an Abbreviated New Drug Application ("ANDA") has been filed by Perrigo. On May 1, 2020, the Company filed suit against Perrigo pursuant to the Hatch-Waxman Act, alleging infringement by Perrigo of one or more claims of the Bryhali® Patents, thereby triggering a 30-month stay of the approval of the Perrigo ANDA for halobetasol propionate lotion. On September 3, 2020, this action was consolidated with the action between the Company and Perrigo described below, regarding Perrigo's ANDA for generic Duobrii® (halobetasol propionate and tazarotine) lotion. The Company remains confident in the strength of the Bryhali® patents and intends to vigorously pursue this matter and defend its intellectual property.

Duobrii® Lotion (Perrigo) - On July 23, 2020, the Company received a Notice of Paragraph IV Certification from Perrigo, in which Perrigo asserted that certain U.S. patents, each of which is listed in the FDA's Orange Book for Duobrii® (halobetasol propionate and tazarotine) lotion, are either invalid, unenforceable and/or will not be infringed by the commercial manufacture, use or sale of Perrigo's generic lotion, for which an ANDA has been filed by Perrigo. On August 28, 2020, the Company filed suit against Perrigo pursuant to the Hatch-Waxman Act, alleging infringement by Perrigo of one or more claims of the Duobrii® Patents, thereby triggering a 30-month stay of the approval of the Perrigo ANDA. On September 3, 2020, this action was consolidated with the action between the Company and Perrigo described above, regarding Perrigo's ANDA for generic Bryhali® (halobetasol propionate) lotion. We remain confident in the strength of the Duobrii® patents and will vigorously defend our intellectual property.

Xifaxan® 550mg Patent Litigation (Actavis) - On March 23, 2016, the Company initiated litigation against Actavis Laboratories FL, Inc.'s ("Actavis"), which alleged infringement by Actavis of one or more claims of each of the Xifaxan® patents. On September 12, 2018, we announced that we had reached an agreement with Actavis that resolved the existing litigation and eliminated the pending challenges to our intellectual property protecting Xifaxan® (rifaximin) 550 mg tablets. As part of the agreement, the parties agreed to dismiss all litigation related to Xifaxan® (rifaximin), Actavis acknowledged the validity of the licensed patents for Xifaxan® (rifaximin) 550 mg tablets and all intellectual property protecting Xifaxan® (rifaximin) 550 mg tablets will remain intact and enforceable until expiry in 2029. The agreement also grants Actavis a non-exclusive license to the intellectual property relating to Xifaxan® (rifaximin) 550 mg tablets in the United States beginning January 1, 2028 (or earlier under certain circumstances). The Company will not make any financial payments or other transfers of value as part of the agreement. In addition, under the terms of the agreement, beginning January 1, 2028 (or earlier under certain circumstances), Actavis will have the option to: (1) market a royalty-free generic version of Xifaxan® tablets, 550 mg, should it receive approval from the FDA on its ANDA, or (2) market an authorized generic version of Xifaxan® tablets, 550 mg, in which case, we will receive a share of the economics from Actavis on its sales of such an authorized generic. Actavis will be able to commence such marketing earlier if another generic rifaximin product is granted approval and such other generic rifaximin product begins to be sold or distributed before January 1, 2028.

Xifaxan® 550mg Patent Litigation (Sandoz) - In October 2019, the Company announced that it and its licensor, Alfasigma had commenced litigation against Sandoz Inc. ("Sandoz"), a Novartis division, alleging patent infringement of 14 patents by Sandoz's filing of its ANDA for Xifaxan® (rifaximin) 550 mg tablets. On May 6, 2020, the Company announced that an agreement had been reached with Sandoz that resolved this litigation. Under the terms of the agreement, the parties agreed to dismiss all litigation related to Xifaxan® (rifaximin), Sandoz acknowledged the validity of the licensed patents for Xifaxan® (rifaximin) 550 mg tablets and all intellectual property protecting Xifaxan® (rifaximin) 550 mg tablets will remain intact and enforceable until expiry in October 2029. The agreement also grants Sandoz a non-exclusive license to the intellectual property relating to Xifaxan® (rifaximin) 550 mg tablets in the United States beginning January 1, 2028 (or earlier under certain circumstances). Under the terms of the agreement, beginning January 1, 2028 (or earlier under certain circumstances), Sandoz will have the right to market a royalty-free generic version of Xifaxan® (rifaximin) 550 mg tablets, should it receive approval from the FDA on its ANDA. Sandoz will be able to commence such marketing earlier if another generic rifaximin product is granted approval and such other generic rifaximin product begins to be sold or distributed in the U.S. before January 1, 2028. The Company did not make any financial payments or other transfers of value as part of this agreement with Sandoz.

Xifaxan® 550mg Patent Litigation (Norwich) - On March 26, 2020, the Company and its licensor Alfasigma filed suit against Norwich Pharmaceuticals Inc. ("Norwich"), alleging infringement by Norwich of one or more claims of the 23 Xifaxan® patents by Norwich's filing of its ANDA for Xifaxan® (rifaximin) 550 mg tablets. On November 13, 2020, an additional three patents alleged to be infringed by Norwich were added to the suit. Xifaxan® 500mg is protected by 26 patents covering the composition of matter and the use of Xifaxan® listed in the FDA's Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, or the Orange Book. The Company remains confident in the strength of the Xifaxan® patents and will continue to vigorously pursue this matter and defend its intellectual property.

Xifaxan® 200mg and 550mg Patent Litigation (Sun) - In April 2019, the Company and its licensor, Alfasigma, commenced litigation against Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. ("Sun"), alleging patent infringement by Sun's filing of its ANDA for Xifaxan® (rifaximin) 200 mg tablets. This suit had been filed following receipt of a Notice of Paragraph IV Certification from Sun, in which Sun asserted that the U.S. patents listed in the FDA's Orange Book for the Company's Xifaxan® tablets, 200 mg, were either invalid, unenforceable and/or would not be infringed by the commercial manufacture, use or sale of Sun's generic rifaximin tablets, 200 mg. Subsequently, on August 10, 2020, the Company received an additional Notice of Paragraph IV Certification from Sun, in which Sun asserted that the U.S. patents listed in the FDA's Orange Book for the Company's Xifaxan® tablets, 550 mg, were either invalid, unenforceable and/or would not be infringed by the commercial manufacture, use or sale of Sun's generic rifaximin tablets, 550 mg, for which an ANDA had been filed by Sun. On September 22, 2020, the Company announced that an agreement had been reached with Sun that resolved the outstanding intellectual property disputes with Sun regarding Xifaxan® (rifaximin) 200 mg and 550 mg tablets. Under the terms of the agreement, the parties agreed to dismiss all litigation related to Xifaxan® (rifaximin) and all intellectual property protecting Xifaxan® (rifaximin) 200 mg and 550 mg tablets will remain intact and enforceable until expiry in July and October 2029, respectively. The agreement also grants Sun a non-exclusive license to the intellectual property relating to Xifaxan® (rifaximin) 200 mg and 550 mg tablets in the U.S. beginning January 1, 2028 (or earlier under certain circumstances). Under the terms of the agreement, beginning January 1, 2028 (or earlier under certain circumstances), Sun will have the right to market royalty-free generic versions of Xifaxan® (rifaximin) 200 mg and 550 mg tablets, should it receive approval from the FDA on its ANDAs. Sun will be able to commence such marketing earlier if another generic rifaximin product is granted approval and such other generic rifaximin product begins to be sold or distributed in the U.S. before January 1, 2028.

Relistor® Tablets Patent Litigation (Actavis) - On December 6, 2016, the Company initiated litigation against Actavis, which alleged infringement by Actavis of one or more claims of U.S. Patent No. 8,524,276 (the "'276 Patent"), which protects the formulation of RELISTOR® tablets. Actavis had challenged the validity of such patent and alleged non-infringement by its generic version of such product. In July 2019, we announced that the U.S. District Court of New Jersey had upheld the validity of and determined that Actavis infringed the '276 Patent, expiring in March 2031. Actavis has appealed this decision to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.

Generic Competition to Uceris® - In July 2018, a generic competitor launched a product which will directly compete with our Uceris® Tablet product. As disclosed in our prior filings, the Company initiated various infringement proceedings against this generic competitor. The Court construed the claims of the asserted patents on August 2, 2019 and, on October 24, 2019, the Company agreed to a judgment that the asserted patents did not cover the generic tablets under the Court's claim construction, while reserving its right to appeal the claim construction. On November 22, 2019, the Company filed a Notice of Appeal with respect to the claim construction in the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. On December 18, 2020, the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit affirmed the District Court's claim construction. The ultimate impact of this generic competitor on our future revenues cannot be predicted; however, Uceris® Tablet revenues for 2020, 2019 and 2018 were approximately $15 million, $20 million and $84 million, respectively.

Generic Competition to Jublia® - On June 6, 2018, the U.S. Patent and Trial Appeal Board ("PTAB") completed its inter partes review for an Orange Book-listed patent covering Jublia® (U.S. Patent No 7,214,506 (the "'506 Patent")) and issued a written determination invalidating such patent. On March 13, 2020, the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit reversed this decision and remanded the matter back to the PTAB for further proceedings. As a result of a settlement, a joint motion to terminate the proceedings was filed on November 12, 2020 and, on January 8, 2021, the PTAB granted this motion. The '506 Patent, therefore, remains valid and enforceable and expires in 2026. Jublia® revenues for 2020, 2019 and 2018 were approximately $111 million, $110 million and $89 million, respectively. Jublia® is covered by fourteen additional Orange Book-listed patents owned by the Company or its licensor, which expire in the years 2028 through 2035. In August and September 2018, we received notices of the filing of a number of ANDAs with paragraph IV certification, and have timely filed patent infringement suits against these ANDA filers, and, in addition, we have also commenced certain patent infringement proceedings in Canada against three separate defendants.

See Note 20, "LEGAL PROCEEDINGS" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for further details regarding certain infringement proceedings.

The risks of generic competition are a fact of the health care industry and are not specific to our operations or product portfolio. These risks are not avoidable, but we believe they are manageable. To manage these risks, our leadership team continually evaluates the impact that generic competition may have on future profitability and operations. In addition to aggressively defending the Company's patents and other intellectual property, our leadership team makes operational and investment decisions regarding these products and businesses at risk, not the least of which are decisions regarding our pipeline. Our leadership team actively manages the Company's pipeline in order to identify innovative and realizable projects aligned with our core businesses that are expected to provide incremental and sustainable revenues and growth into the future. We believe that our current pipeline is strong enough to meet these objectives and provide future sources of revenues, in our core businesses, sufficient enough to sustain our growth and corporate health as other products in our established portfolio face generic competition and lose momentum.

We believe that we have a well-established product portfolio that is diversified within our core businesses. We also believe that we have a robust pipeline that not only provides for the next generation of our existing products, but also brings new solutions into the market.

See Item 1A. "Risk Factors" of this Form 10-K for additional information on our competition risks.

FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE HIGHLIGHTS

The following table provides financial performance highlights for each of the last three years:

Years Ended December 31,

Change

(in millions, except per share data)

2020

2019

2018

Revenues

$

8,027

$

8,601

$

8,380

$

(574)

$

221

Operating income (loss)

$

676

$

(203)

$

(2,384)

$

879

$

2,181

Loss before benefit from income taxes

$

(934)

$

(1,837)

$

(4,154)

$

903

$

2,317

Net loss

$

(559)

$

(1,783)

$

(4,144)

$

1,224

$

2,361

Net loss attributable to Bausch Health Companies Inc.

$

(560)

$

(1,788)

$

(4,148)

$

1,228

$

2,360

Loss per share attributable to Bausch Health Companies Inc.

Basic

$

(1.58)

$

(5.08)

$

(11.81)

$

3.50

$

6.73

Diluted

$

(1.58)

$

(5.08)

$

(11.81)

$

3.50

$

6.73

Financial Performance

Summary of 2020 Compared with 2019

2019 to 2020

2018 to 2019

Revenues for 2020 and 2019 were $8,027 million and $8,601 million, respectively, a decrease of $574 million, or 7%. The decrease was primarily driven by: (i) lower volumes driven by: (a) social restrictions and other precautionary measures taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, as previously discussed, and (b) the impact of the LOE of certain products, (ii) the unfavorable effect of foreign currencies, primarily in Latin America, and (iii) the impact of divestitures and discontinuations. These decreases in our revenues were partially offset by the incremental sales of our Trulance® product, which we added to our portfolio in March 2019 as part of the acquisition of certain assets of Synergy. Net realized pricing was flat with increases in Bausch + Lomb/International and Diversified Products being offset by decreases in Salix and Ortho Dermatologics. The changes in our segment revenues and segment profits are discussed in further detail in the subsequent section titled "Reportable Segment Revenues and Profits".

Operating income for 2020 was $676 million compared to Operating loss for 2019 of $203 million, an increase in our operating results of $879 million which reflects, among other factors:

  • • a decrease in contribution (product sales revenue less cost of goods sold, exclusive of amortization and impairments of intangible assets) of $470 million. The decrease was primarily driven by: (i) the decrease in revenues, as previously discussed and (ii) higher manufacturing variances primarily due to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. The decrease was partially offset by lower third-party royalty costs;

  • • a decrease in Selling, general, and administrative ("SG&A") expenses of $187 million, primarily attributable to profit protection measures taken to manage and reduce operating expenses during the COVID-19 pandemic;

  • • a decrease in R&D of $19 million primarily attributable to social restrictions and other precautionary measures taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, as previously discussed;

  • • a decrease in Amortization of intangible assets of $252 million primarily attributable to fully amortized intangible assets no longer being amortized in 2020;

  • • an increase in Asset impairments, including loss on assets held for sale of $39 million. Asset impairments, including loss on assets held for sale in 2020 were primarily related to: (i) reclassifying a business within our Bausch + Lomb/ International segment as held for sale and (ii) certain product lines as a result of changes to forecasted sales. Impairments during 2019 were primarily related to: (i) certain product lines as a result of changes to forecasted sales due to generic competition and other factors and (ii) impairments related to assets being classified as held for sale; and

  • • a decrease in Other expense (income), net of $960 million, primarily attributable the decrease in net charges to Litigation and other matters. The decrease in Litigation and other matters was primarily related to the settlement of a legacy U.S. securities class action matter (which is subject to an objector's appeal of the final court approval) in 2019, to which the Company and the other settling defendants admitted no liability as to the claims against it and denied all allegations of wrongdoing.

Operating income for 2020 was $676 million compared to Operating loss for 2019 of $203 million and includes non-cash charges for Depreciation and amortization of intangible assets of $1,825 million and $2,075 million, Asset impairments,including loss on assets held for sale of $114 million and $75 million and Share-based compensation of $105 million and $102 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Our Loss before benefit from income taxes for 2020 and 2019 was $934 million and $1,837 million, respectively, an increase in our results before benefit from income taxes of $903 million. The decrease in our Loss before benefit from income taxes is primarily attributable to: (i) the increase in our operating results of $879 million, as previously discussed, and (ii) a decrease in Interest expense of $78 million as a result of: (a) a lower weighted average stated rate of interest, (b) lower interest as a result of debt repayments during the year and (c) a benefit related to the Company's cross-currency swaps. These decreases in Interest expense were partially offset by the interest associated with $1,210 million of additional financing in December 2019 relating to the U.S. Securities Litigation. The decrease in our Loss before benefit from income taxes was partially offset by: (i) an unfavorable net change in Foreign exchange and other of $38 million and (ii) an increase in the Loss on extinguishment of debt of $17 million.

Net loss attributable to Bausch Health Companies Inc. for 2020 and 2019 was $560 million and $1,788 million, respectively, an increase in our results of $1,228 million. The increase in our results was primarily due to: (i) the decrease in Loss before benefit from income taxes of $903 million, as previously discussed, and (ii) the favorable net change in the Benefit from income taxes of $321 million.

Summary of 2019 Compared with 2018

Revenues for 2019 and 2018 were $8,601 million and $8,380 million, respectively, an increase of $221 million, or 3%. The increase was primarily driven by: (i) higher net realized pricing, (ii) higher volumes and (iii) sales of our Trulance® product, which we added to our portfolio in March 2019 as part of the acquisition of certain assets of Synergy. These increases in Revenues were partially offset by: (i) the unfavorable effect of foreign currencies, primarily in Europe, Asia and Latin America, and (ii) the impact of divestitures and discontinuations.

Operating loss for 2019 and 2018 was $203 million and $2,384 million, respectively, an increase in our operating results of $2,181 million which reflects, among other factors:

  • • an increase in contribution (product sales revenue less cost of goods sold, exclusive of amortization and impairments of intangible assets) of $230 million. The increase was primarily driven by: (i) higher gross selling prices, (ii) higher volumes, (iii) the incremental contribution of the sales of our Trulance® product, which we added to our portfolio in March 2019 as part of the acquisition of certain assets of Synergy and (iv) better inventory management, partially offset by: (i) the unfavorable effect of foreign currencies, (ii) the impact of divestitures and discontinuations, (iii) higher sales deductions and (iv) the amortization of the inventory fair value step-up recorded in acquisition accounting related to the inventories we acquired as part of the acquisition of certain assets of Synergy;

  • • an increase in SG&A expenses of $81 million, primarily attributable to: (i) higher selling, advertising and promotion expenses, (ii) the impact of the acquisition of certain assets of Synergy, (iii) costs in 2019 attributable to our IT infrastructure improvement projects and (iv) the charge associated with the termination of a co-promotional agreement with US WorldMeds, LLC. The increase was partially offset by: (i) the favorable effect of foreign currencies, (ii) lower costs related to professional services and (iii) the impact of divestitures and discontinuations;

  • • an increase in R&D of $58 million primarily attributable to a number of projects within our Bausch + Lomb and GI businesses;

  • • a decrease in Amortization of intangible assets of $747 million, primarily due to: (i) the impact of the change in the estimated useful life of the Xifaxan® related intangible assets made in September 2018 to reflect management's changes in assumptions, (ii) fully amortized intangible assets no longer being amortized in 2019 and (iii) lower amortization as a result of impairments to intangible assets in prior periods;

  • • a decrease in Goodwill impairments of $2,322 million, as a result of impairments in 2018 to the goodwill of our: (i) Salix reporting unit upon adopting the new guidance for goodwill impairment accounting at January 1, 2018, (ii) Ortho Dermatologics reporting unit due to unforeseen changes in business dynamics during the three months ended March 31, 2018 and (iii) Dentistry reporting unit as a result of revised forecasts due to changing market conditions during the three months ended December 31, 2018;

  • • a decrease in Asset impairments, including loss on assets held for sale of $493 million, primarily related to specific impairments in 2018 as a result of: (i) decreases in forecasted sales for the Uceris® Tablet product due to generic competition and (ii) decreases in forecasted sales for the Arestin® product due to changing market conditions; and

  • • an increase in Other expense (income), net of $1,434 million, primarily attributable to: (i) an increase in net charges to Litigation and other matters primarily related to the settlement of a legacy U.S. securities class action matter (which is

subject to an objector's appeal of the final court approval) in 2019, to which the Company and the other settling defendants admitted no liability as to the claims against it and deny all allegations of wrongdoing and (ii) Acquired in-process research and development costs incurred during 2019 associated with the upfront payments to enter into certain exclusive licensing agreements. These increases in other expenses were partially offset by the expected receipt for the achievement of a milestone related to a certain product.

Operating loss for 2019 and 2018 was $203 million and $2,384 million, respectively, and includes non-cash charges for Depreciation and amortization of intangible assets of $2,075 million and $2,819 million, Goodwill impairments of $0 and $2,322 million, asset impairments of $75 million and $568 million and Share-based compensation of $102 million and $87 million, respectively.

Our Loss before benefit from income taxes for 2019 and 2018 was $1,837 million and $4,154 million, respectively, an increase in our results before benefit from income taxes of $2,317 million. The decrease in our Loss before benefit from income taxes is primarily attributable to: (i) the increase in our operating results of $2,181 million previously discussed, (ii) the decrease in the Loss on extinguishment of debt of $77 million and (iii) a decrease in Interest expense of $73 million as a result of lower principal amounts of outstanding debt for most of 2019, partially offset by the effect of higher interest rates during 2019. The decrease in our Loss before benefit from income taxes was partially offset by an unfavorable net change in Foreign exchange and other of $15 million.

Net loss attributable to Bausch Health Companies Inc. for 2019 and 2018 was $1,788 million and $4,148 million, respectively, an increase in our results of $2,360 million. The increase in our results was primarily due to the decrease in Loss before benefit from income taxes of $2,317 million, as previously discussed, and the increase in the Benefit from income taxes of $44 million.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Our results for the years 2020, 2019 and 2018 were as follows:

(in millions)

Revenues

Product sales Other revenues

Expenses

Cost of goods sold (excluding amortization and impairments of intangible assets) Cost of other revenues

Years Ended December 31,

Change

2020

2019

2018

2019 to 2020

$ 7,924 103 8,027

2018 to 2019

$ 8,489 112 8,601

$ 8,271 109 8,380

$

(565) $ 218

(9) 3

(574) 221

2,202

2,297

2,309

  • (95) (12)

    47

    53

    42

  • (6) 11

    Selling, general and administrative Research and development Amortization of intangible assets Goodwill impairments

    2,367

    2,554

    2,473

  • (187) 81

    452

    471

    413

  • (19) 58

  • 1,645 -

    1,897 -

    2,644

  • (252) (747)

2,322

- (2,322)

Asset impairments, including loss on assets held for sale Restructuring, integration and separation costs Acquisition-related contingent consideration Other expense (income), net

114

75

568

39 (493)

22

31

22 (9) 9

48

12

(9) 36 21

  • 454 1,414

(20) (960) 1,434

7,351

8,804

10,764

(1,453)

(1,960)

  • 676 (203)

(2,384)

879 2,181

Operating income (loss) Interest income

13

12

11

1 1

Interest expense

(1,534)

(1,612)

(1,685)

78 73

Loss on extinguishment of debt Foreign exchange and other

(59)

(42)

(119)

(17) 77

(30)

8

23

(38) (15)

Loss before benefit from income taxes

(934)

(1,837)

(4,154) 903 2,317

Benefit from income taxes

375

54

10

Net loss

  • (559) (1,783)

    Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest

  • (1) (5)

  • (4)

Net loss attributable to Bausch Health Companies Inc.

(4,144)

$

(560) $ (1,788) $ (4,148)

321 44 1,224 2,361 4 (1)

$ 1,228

$ 2,360

A detailed discussion of the year-over-year changes of the Company's 2019 results compared with that of 2018 can be found under "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 filed on February 19, 2020.

2020 Compared with 2019

Revenues

Our revenues are primarily generated from product sales, principally in the therapeutic areas of eye-health, GI and dermatology, that consist of: (i) branded pharmaceuticals, (ii) generic and branded generic pharmaceuticals, (iii) OTC products and (iv) medical devices (contact lenses, intraocular lenses, ophthalmic surgical equipment and aesthetics devices). Other revenues include alliance and service revenue from the licensing and co-promotion of products and contract service revenue primarily in the areas of dermatology and topical medication. Contract service revenue is derived primarily from contract manufacturing for third parties and is not material. See Note 22, "SEGMENT INFORMATION" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for the disaggregation of revenues which depicts how the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows are affected by the economic factors of each category of customer contracts.

Our revenues were $8,027 million and $8,601 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively, a decrease of $574 million, or 7%. The decrease was primarily driven by: (i) lower volumes of $528 million primarily in our Bausch + Lomb/International and Diversified Products segments primarily due to social restrictions and other precautionary measures taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, as previously discussed, (ii) the unfavorable effect of foreign currencies of $39 million primarily in Latin America and (iii) the impact of divestitures and discontinuations of $20 million. The decreases in our revenues were partially offset by the incremental product sales of our Trulance® product, which we added to our portfolio in March 2019 as part of the acquisition of certain assets of Synergy of $13 million. Net realized pricing was flat with increases in Bausch + Lomb/ International and Diversified Products being offset by decreases in Salix and Ortho Dermatologics.

Our 2020 revenues were most negatively impacted during our second quarter by the social restrictions and other precautionary measures taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, as governments began lifting social restrictions, allowing offices of certain health care providers to reopen and certain surgeries and elective medical procedures to proceed, the negative trend in the revenues of certain businesses began to level off and stabilize prior to our third quarter of 2020. Our revenues for the three months ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were $2,213 million and $2,224 million, respectively, a decrease of $11 million. This decrease of less than 1% represents a continuing improving trend over the decreases in our year-over-year revenues for the three month periods ended June 30, 2020 and September 30, 2020 of 23% and 3%, respectively, and suggests that a recovery is underway. Presuming there continues to be increased availability of effective vaccines and any resurgence of the COVID-19 virus and variant strains thereof do not have a material adverse impact on efforts to contain the COVID-19 virus, the Company anticipates an ongoing, gradual global recovery from the significant macroeconomic and health care impacts of the pandemic that occurred during the first-half of 2020 and anticipates that its affected businesses could return to pre-pandemic levels during 2021. However, the rates of recovery for each business will vary by geography and will be dependent upon, among other things, the availability and effectiveness of vaccines for the COVID-19 virus, government responses, rates of economic recovery, precautionary measures taken by patients and customers, the rate at which remaining social restrictions are lifted and once lifted, the presumption that social restrictions will not be materially reenacted in the event of a resurgence of the virus and other actions taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

The changes in our year over year segment revenues and segment profits, including the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic related matters for 2020, are discussed in further detail in the respective subsequent sections " - Reportable Segment Revenues and Profits".

Cash Discounts and Allowances, Chargebacks and Distribution Fees

As is customary in the pharmaceutical industry, gross product sales are subject to a variety of deductions in arriving at net product sales. Provisions for these deductions are recognized concurrently with the recognition of gross product sales. These provisions include cash discounts and allowances, chargebacks, and distribution fees, which are paid or credited to direct customers, as well as rebates and returns, which can be paid or credited to direct and indirect customers. As more fully discussed in Note 2, "SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements, the Company continually monitors the provisions for these deductions and evaluates the estimates used as additional information becomes available. Price appreciation credits are generated when we increase a product's wholesaler acquisition cost ("WAC") under our contracts with certain wholesalers. Under such contracts, we are entitled to credits from such wholesalers for the impact of that WAC increase on inventory on hand at the wholesalers. In wholesaler contracts, such credits are offset against the total distribution service fees we pay on all of our products to each such wholesaler. In addition, some payor contracts require discounting if a price increase or series of price increases in a contract period exceeds a negotiated threshold. Provision balances relating to amounts payable to direct customers are netted against trade receivables and balances relating to indirect customers are included in accrued liabilities.

We actively manage these offerings, focusing on the incremental costs of our patient assistance programs, the level of discounting to non-retail accounts and identifying opportunities to minimize product returns. We also concentrate on managing our relationships with our payors and wholesalers, reviewing the ranges of our offerings and being disciplined as to the amount and type of incentives we negotiate.

Provisions recorded to reduce gross product sales to net product sales and revenues for 2020 and 2019 were as follows:

Years Ended December 31,

(in millions)

2020

2019

Amount

Amount

Pct.

Pct.

Gross product sales

$

Provisions to reduce gross product sales to net product sales

Discounts and allowances

Returns

Rebates Chargebacks Distribution service fees

Net product sales

$

12,960100.0 % $

%

776

5.6

%

113

0.8

%

2,265

16.4

%

1,938

14.1

%

195

1.5

%

5,287

38.4

%

61.1 % $

8,489

61.6

%

13,776100.0

6214.8 %

120 0.9 %

2,17416.8 %

1,925 14.9 %

1961.5 %

5,036 38.9 %

7,924

Cash discounts and allowances, returns, rebates, chargebacks and distribution fees as a percentage of gross product sales were38.9% and 38.4% in 2020 and 2019, respectively. Changes in cash discounts and allowances, returns, rebates, chargebacks and distribution fees as a percentage of gross product sales were primarily driven by:

  • • discounts and allowances as a percentage of gross product sales was lower primarily due to lower discount rates for certain generic products, such as Glumetza® AG, Migranal® AG and Syprine® AG, partially offset by the impact of higher gross product sales of Xifaxan® and Lotemax® AG;

  • • returns as a percentage of gross product sales was relatively unchanged. Over the last several years, the Company increased its focus on maximizing operational efficiencies and continues to take actions to reduce product returns, including but not limited to: (i) monitoring and reducing customer inventory levels, (ii) instituting disciplined pricing policies and (iii) improving contracting. These actions have had the effect of improving sales return experience, primarily related to branded and generic products. Included in the product sales return provisions for 2020 and 2019 are reductions in variable consideration for sales returns related to past sales of approximately $38 million and $80 million, respectively. See Note 2, "SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements regarding further details related to product sales provisions;

  • • rebates as a percentage of gross product sales was higher primarily due the impact of: (i) increases in gross product sales for products that carry higher contractual rebates and co-pay assistance programs, including the impact of incremental rebates from contractual price increase limitations for promoted products, such as Xifaxan® and Jublia® and (ii) sales of our Trulance® product, which we added to our portfolio in March 2019 as part of the acquisition of certain assets of Synergy, partially offset by decreases in gross product sales for products which carry higher rebate rates, such as Apriso® as a result of its generic release, Lotemax® Suspension and Lotemax® Gel;

  • • chargebacks as a percentage of gross product sales was higher primarily due to the impact of: (i) higher chargeback rates and gross product sales for Glumetza® SLX, Xifaxan® and Nifedical® and (ii) the release of the generic Apriso® AG (December 2019). The higher chargebacks as a percentage of gross product sales were partially offset by the impact of lower gross product sales of: (i) certain generic products, such as Glumetza® AG, Targretin® AG, and Ofloxacin and (ii) the branded product Nifedical®; and

  • • distribution service fees as a percentage of gross product sales was unchanged as the impact of: (i) higher gross product sales and higher distribution service fee rates associated with our Xifaxan® and Glumetza® SLX products and (ii) sales of our Trulance® product, which we added to our portfolio in March 2019 as part of the acquisition of certain assets of Synergy were offset by the impact of lower gross product sales of certain branded products, such as Apriso® as a result of its generic release. Price appreciation credits are offset against the distribution service fees we pay wholesalers and were $15 million and $11 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Operating Expenses

Cost of Goods Sold (exclusive of amortization and impairments of intangible assets)

Cost of goods sold primarily includes: manufacturing and packaging; the cost of products we purchase from third parties; royalty payments we make to third parties; depreciation of manufacturing facilities and equipment; and lower of cost or market adjustments to inventories. Cost of goods sold excludes the amortization and impairments of intangible assets.

Cost of goods sold was $2,202 million and $2,297 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively, a decrease of $95 million, or 4%. The decrease was primarily driven by: (i) lower third-party royalty costs, (ii) lower volumes, as previously discussed, and (iii) the favorable impact of foreign currencies. The decrease was partially offset by: (i) higher manufacturing variances primarily due to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and (ii) changes in product mix.

Cost of goods sold as a percentage of Product sales revenue was 27.8% and 27.1% for 2020 and 2019, respectively, an increase of 0.7 percentage points. Costs of goods sold as a percentage of Product sales revenue was unfavorably impacted as a result of: (i) changes in product mix and (ii) higher manufacturing variances primarily due to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. These factors were partially offset by lower third-party royalty costs.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

SG&A expenses primarily include: employee compensation associated with sales and marketing, finance, legal, information technology, human resources and other administrative functions; certain outside legal fees and consultancy costs; product promotion expenses; overhead and occupancy costs; depreciation of corporate facilities and equipment; and other general and administrative costs. Also included in SG&A expenses for 2020 are separation-related costs. The Company has incurred, and will incur, separation-related costs which are incremental costs indirectly related to the Separation. Separation-related costs include, but are not limited to: (i) IT infrastructure and software licensing costs, (ii) rebranding costs and (iii) costs associated with facility relocation and/or modification.

SG&A expenses were $2,367 million and $2,554 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively, a decrease of $187 million, or 7%. The decrease was primarily attributable to: (i) the impacts of social restrictions and other precautionary measures taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, as previously discussed, and (ii) profit protection measures taken to manage and reduce operating expenses during the COVID-19 pandemic and resulted in decreases in: (a) advertising and promotion expenses and (b) selling expenses. The profit protection measures have been successful in expanding the profit margins in many of our businesses. As the pace of recovery in each geography accelerates, we expect to allocate more resources to selling and other promotional activities to drive our return to sustainable revenue and profit growth. Therefore, if the recovery continues, we expect our operating expenses to increase in support of our existing products, product launches and products in development and expect to see our operating expenses in 2021 exceed our operating expenses in 2020 as a result. Included within SG&A expenses for 2020 were $21 million of separation-related costs. Included within SG&A expenses for 2019 was a charge associated with the termination of a certain co-promotional agreement.

Research and Development Expenses

Included in Research and development are costs related to our product development and quality assurance programs. Expenses related to product development include: employee compensation costs; overhead and occupancy costs; depreciation of research and development facilities and equipment; clinical trial costs; clinical manufacturing and scale-up costs; and other third-party development costs. Quality assurance are the costs incurred to meet evolving customer and regulatory standards and include: employee compensation costs; overhead and occupancy costs; amortization of software; and other third-party costs.

R&D expenses were $452 million and $471 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively, a decrease of $19 million, or 4%. R&D expenses as a percentage of Product sales were approximately 6% and 5% for 2020 and 2019, respectively.

As previously discussed, primarily during our second quarter of 2020, certain of our R&D activities were limited and others, including new patient enrollments in clinical trials, were temporarily paused as most trial sites were not able to accept new patients due to government mandated shutdowns. However, during our third quarter of 2020, many of these trial sites began to reopen and we saw the pace of new patient enrollments increasing, getting close to their pre-COVID-19 levels in the U.S. As of the date of this filing, we have not had to make material changes to our development timelines and the pause in our clinical trials have not had a material impact on our operating results; however, a resurgence of the virus could result in unanticipated delays in our ability to conduct new patient enrollments and create other delays which could have a significant adverse effect on our future operating results.

Amortization of Intangible Assets

Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives, generally 2 to 20 years. Management continually assesses the useful lives related to the Company's long-lived assets to reflect the most current assumptions.

Amortization of intangible assets was $1,645 million and $1,897 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively, a decrease of $252 million, or 13%. The decrease was primarily attributable to fully amortized intangible assets no longer being amortized in 2020.

See Note 8, "INTANGIBLE ASSETS AND GOODWILL" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for further details related to our intangible assets.

Asset impairments, including loss on assets held for sale

Long-lived assets with finite lives are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. The Company continues to monitor the recoverability of its finite-lived intangible assets and tests the intangible assets for impairment if indicators of impairment are present.

Asset impairments, including loss on assets held for sale were $114 million and $75 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively, an increase of $39 million. Asset impairments, including loss on assets held for sale for 2020 included impairments of: (i) $96 million to reduce the carrying value of a business within the Bausch + Lomb/International segment to its estimated fair value less costs to sell due to classifying the business as held for sale, (ii) $16 million, in aggregate, due to decreases in forecasted sales of certain product lines, (iii) $1 million, in aggregate, related to the discontinuance of certain product lines not aligned with the focus of the Company's core businesses and (iv) $1 million related to Acquired in-process research and development not in service. Asset impairments, including loss on assets held for sale for 2019 included impairments of: (i) $58 million reflecting decreases in forecasted sales of certain product lines due to generic competition and other factors, (ii) $8 million related to assets being classified as held for sale, (iii) $5 million related to certain product/patent assets associated with the discontinuance of specific product lines not aligned with the focus of the Company's core businesses and (iv) $4 million related to Acquired in-process research and development not in service.

See Note 8, "INTANGIBLE ASSETS AND GOODWILL" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for further details related to our intangible assets.

Restructuring, Integration and Separation Costs

Restructuring, integration and separation costs were $22 million and $31 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively, a decrease of $9 million.

Restructuring and integration costs

The Company evaluates opportunities to improve its operating results and implements cost savings programs to streamline its operations and eliminate redundant processes and expenses. Restructuring and integration costs are expenses associated with the implementation of these cost savings programs and include expenses associated with: (i) reducing headcount, (ii) eliminating real estate costs associated with unused or under-utilized facilities and (iii) implementing contribution margin improvement and other cost reduction initiatives.

Restructuring and integration costs were $11 million and $31 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively, a decrease of $20 million. During 2020, these costs included: (i) $10 million of facility closure costs and (ii) $1 million of severance and other costs. During 2019, these costs included: (i) $11 million of severance costs and other costs associated with the acquisition of certain assets of Synergy, (ii) $11 million of facility closure costs and (iii) $9 million of other severance costs. The Company continues to evaluate opportunities to streamline its operations and identify additional cost savings globally. Although a specific plan does not exist at this time, the Company may identify and take additional exit and cost-rationalization restructuring actions in the future, the costs of which could be material.

Separation costs

The Company has incurred, and will incur, costs associated with activities to effectuate the Separation. These activities include: (i) separating the eye-health business from the remainder of the Company and (ii) registering the eye-health business as an independent publicly traded entity. Separation costs are incremental costs directly related to the Separation and include, but are not limited to: (i) legal, audit and advisory fees, (ii) employee hiring, relocation and travel costs and (iii) costs associated with establishing a new board of directors and audit committee. Separation costs were $11 million for 2020. The Company is inthe planning phase of the Separation and the extent and timing of future charges for these costs cannot be reasonably estimated at this time and could be material.

See Note 4, "RESTRUCTURING, INTEGRATION AND SEPARATION COSTS" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for further details regarding these actions.

Acquisition-Related Contingent Consideration

Acquisition-related contingent consideration primarily consists of potential milestone payments and royalty obligations associated with businesses and assets we acquired in the past. These obligations are recorded in the Consolidated Balance Sheets at their estimated fair values at the acquisition date, in accordance with the acquisition method of accounting. The fair value of the acquisition-related contingent consideration is remeasured each reporting period, with changes in fair value recorded in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. The fair value measurement is based on significant inputs not observable in the market and thus represents a Level 3 measurement as defined in fair value measurement accounting.

Acquisition-related contingent consideration was a loss of $48 million in 2020 and included: (i) net fair value adjustments of $25 million, which included net fair value adjustments to expected future royalty payments and (ii) accretion for the time value of money of $23 million. Acquisition-related contingent consideration was a loss of $12 million in 2019 and included accretion for the time value of money of $22 million, partially offset by net fair value adjustments of $10 million, which included net fair value adjustments to expected future royalty payments.

See Note 5, "FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.

Other expense (income), net

Other expense (income), net for 2020 and 2019 consists of the following:

(in millions)

2020

2019

Litigation and other matters

$

422

$

1,401

Acquired in-process research and development costs

32

41

Net (gain) loss on sales of assets

(1)

(31)

Acquisition-related costs

-

8

Other, net

1

(5)

Other expense (income), net

$

454

$

1,414

In 2020, Litigation and other matters includes net charges related to the U.S. Securities Litigation, the SEC Investigation and the Canadian Securities Litigation and related opt-outs. In 2020, Litigation and other matters also includes an insurance recovery related to a certain litigation matter. In 2019, Litigation and other matters includes the settlement of a legacy U.S. securities class action matter (which is subject to an objector's appeal of the final court approval). In December 2019, we announced that we had agreed to resolve the U.S. Securities Litigation for $1,210 million. Final court approval of this settlement was granted in January 2021. Subject to an objector's appeal of the Court's final approval order, the settlement resolves and discharges all claims against the Company in this class action and resolves the most significant of the Company's remaining legacy legal matters and eliminates a material uncertainty. As part of the settlement, the Company and the other settling defendants admitted no liability as to the claims against it and denied all allegations of wrongdoing.

In addition to the anticipated resolution of the U.S. Securities Litigation, through the date of this filing, we achieved dismissals and other positive outcomes in a number of litigations, disputes and investigations, as we continue to actively address others. These matters and other significant matters are discussed in further detail in Note 20, "LEGAL PROCEEDINGS" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements.

In 2020 and 2019, Acquired in-process research and development costs of $32 million and $41 million, primarily consist of costs associated with the upfront payments to enter into certain exclusive licensing agreements. In 2019, Net gain on sales of assets includes $20 million related to the achievement of a milestone related to a certain product.

Non-Operating Income and Expense

Interest Expense

Interest expense primarily consists of interest payments due, amortization of debt premiums, discounts and deferred issuance costs on indebtedness under our credit facilities and notes and the amortization of amounts excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness over the term of the Company's cross-currency swaps.

Interest expense was $1,534 million and $1,612 million and included non-cash amortization and write-offs of debt discounts and deferred financing costs of $61 million and $63 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively. Interest expense decreased $78 million, or 5%, primarily due to: (i) a lower weighted average stated rate of interest, (ii) lower interest as a result of debt repayments during the year and (iii) a benefit related to the Company's cross-currency swaps. These decreases were partially offset by the interest associated with $1,210 million of additional financing in December 2019 relating to the U.S. Securities Litigation. The weighted average stated rate of interest as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 was 6.02% and 6.21%, respectively.

See Note 10, "FINANCING ARRANGEMENTS" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.

Loss on Extinguishment of Debt

Loss on extinguishment of debt represents the differences between the amounts paid to settle extinguished debts and the carrying value of the related extinguished debt. Loss on extinguishment of debt was $59 million and $42 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively, associated with a series of transactions which allowed us to refinance and extend the maturities of portions of our debt arrangements.

See Note 10, "FINANCING ARRANGEMENTS" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.

Foreign Exchange and Other

Foreign exchange and other primarily includes: (i) translation gains/losses on intercompany loans and third-party liabilities and (ii) the gain/loss due to foreign currency exchange contracts. Foreign exchange and other was a loss of $30 million for 2020 as compared to a gain of $8 million for 2019, an unfavorable net change of $38 million.

Income Taxes

Income taxes are accounted for under the liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the temporary differences between the financial statement and income tax bases of assets and liabilities, and for operating losses and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets for outside basis differences in investments in subsidiaries are only recognized if the difference will be realized in the foreseeable future. Benefit from income taxes was $375 million and $54 million in 2020 and 2019, respectively, an increase of $321 million.

Our consolidated foreign rate differential reflects the net total tax cost or benefit on income earned or losses incurred in jurisdictions outside of Canada as compared to the net total tax cost or benefit of such income (on a jurisdictional basis) at the Canadian statutory rate of 26.9%. Tax costs below the Canadian statutory rate generate a beneficial foreign rate differential as do tax benefits generated in jurisdictions where the statutory tax rate exceeds the Canadian statutory tax rate. The net total foreign rate differentials generated in each jurisdiction in which we operate is not expected to bear a direct relationship to the net total amount of foreign income (or loss) earned outside of Canada.

In 2020 and 2019, our effective tax rate differs from the statutory Canadian income tax rate primarily due to: (i) the recording of valuation allowance on entities for which no tax benefit of losses is expected, (ii) the tax benefit generated from our annualized mix of earnings by jurisdiction and (iii) the discrete treatment of certain tax matters, primarily related to: (a) the release of a valuation allowance, (b) internal restructurings, (c) changes in uncertain tax positions and (d) changes in the manner in which an outside basis difference will be recovered in future periods.

We record a valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets to reduce their net carrying value to an amount that we believe is more likely than not to be realized. In determining our deferred tax asset valuation allowance, we estimate our ability to utilize future sources of income to realize the benefits of our temporary income tax differences including: (i) net operating loss carryforwards in each jurisdiction, primarily in Canada, the U.S. and Ireland, (ii) research and development tax credit carryforwards, (iii) scientific research and experimental development pool carryforwards and (iv) investment tax credit carryforwards. When we establish/increase or reduce/decrease the valuation allowance, the provision for income taxes will increase or decrease, respectively, in the period such determination is made. Our valuation allowance against deferred tax assets as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 was $2,252 million and $2,831 million, respectively, a decrease of $579 million which was primarily driven by a release of valuation allowance for a change in judgment during 2020 related to previously established deferred tax assets.

See Note 17, "INCOME TAXES" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.

Reportable Segment Revenues and Profits

Our portfolio of products falls into four operating and reportable segments: (i) Bausch + Lomb/International, (ii) Salix, (iii) Ortho Dermatologics and (iv) Diversified Products.

The following is a brief description of our segments:

  • • The Bausch + Lomb/International segment consists of: (i) sales in the U.S. of pharmaceutical products, OTC products and medical device products, primarily comprised of Bausch + Lomb products, with a focus on the Vision Care, Surgical, Consumer and Ophthalmology Rx products and (ii) with the exception of sales of Solta products, sales in Canada, Europe, Asia, Australia, Latin America, Africa and the Middle East of branded pharmaceutical products, branded generic pharmaceutical products, OTC products, medical device products and Bausch + Lomb products.

  • The Salix segment consists of sales in the U.S. of GI products.

  • The Ortho Dermatologics segment consists of: (i) sales in the U.S. of Ortho Dermatologics (dermatological) products and (ii) global sales of Solta medical aesthetic devices.

  • The Diversified Products segment consists of sales in the U.S. of: (i) pharmaceutical products in the areas of neurology and certain other therapeutic classes, (ii) generic products and (iii) dentistry products.

Segment profit is based on operating income after the elimination of intercompany transactions. Certain costs, such as Amortization of intangible assets, Asset impairments, including loss on assets held for sale, Restructuring, integration and separation costs, Acquisition-related contingent consideration costs and Other expense (income), net, are not included in the measure of segment profit, as management excludes these items in assessing segment financial performance. See Note 22, "SEGMENT INFORMATION" to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements for a reconciliation of segment profit to Loss before benefit from income taxes.

The following table presents segment revenues, segment revenues as a percentage of total revenues and the year over year changes in segment revenues for 2020 and 2019. The following table also presents segment profits, segment profits as a percentage of segment revenues and the year over year changes in segment profits for 2020 and 2019.

Years Ended December 31,

(in millions)

2020 Amount

2019

Change 2019 to 2020

Pct.

AmountPct.

AmountPct.

Segment Revenue

  • 1,904 24 %

    • 2,022 23 %

      • (118) (6)%

      • Bausch + Lomb/International Salix

        $

  • 4,408 55 % $

    • 4,739 55 % $

      • (331) (7)%

  • 1,162 14 %

    • 1,275 15 %

    • (113) (9)%

    • Ortho Dermatologics Diversified Products Total revenues

      • 553 7 %

        • 565 7 %

  • (12) (2)%

    $

    8,027

    100 % $

    8,601

    100 % $

  • (574) (7)%

Segment Profits / Segment Profit Margins

Bausch + Lomb/International

$

  • 1,159 26 % $

    • 1,332 28 % $

      • (173) (13)%

      • Salix

  • 1,338 70 %

    • 1,349 67 %

      • (11) (1)%

  • 233 42 %

    • 222 39 %

      • 11 5 %

      • $

        3,578

        45 % $

        3,835

        45 % $

      • (257) (7)%

    • Ortho Dermatologics Diversified Products Total segment profit

  • 848 73 %

  • 932 73 %

  • (84) (9)%

    Organic Revenues and Organic Growth Rates (non-GAAP)

    Organic growth, a non-GAAP metric, is defined as a change on a period-over-period basis in revenues on a constant currency basis (if applicable) excluding the impact of recent acquisitions, divestitures and discontinuations. Organic revenue growth (non-GAAP) is growth in GAAP Revenue (its most directly comparable GAAP financial measure), adjusted for certain items, of businesses that have been owned for one or more years. Organic revenue (non-GAAP) is impacted by changes in product volumes and price. The price component is made up of two key drivers: (i) changes in product gross selling price and (ii) changes in sales deductions. The Company uses organic revenue (non-GAAP) and organic revenue growth (non-GAAP) to assess performance of its reportable segments, and the Company in total, without the impact of foreign currency exchange

fluctuations and recent acquisitions, divestitures and product discontinuations. The Company believes that such measures are useful to investors as they provide a supplemental period-to-period comparison.

Organic revenue growth (non-GAAP) reflects adjustments for: (i) the impact of period-over-period changes in foreign currency exchange rates on revenues and (ii) the revenues associated with acquisitions, divestitures and discontinuations of businesses divested and/or discontinued. These adjustments are determined as follows:

Foreign currency exchange rates: Although changes in foreign currency exchange rates are part of our business, they are not within management's control. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates, however, can mask positive or negative trends in the underlying business performance. The impact for changes in foreign currency exchange rates is determined as the difference in the current period reported revenues at their current period currency exchange rates and the current period reported revenues revalued using the monthly average currency exchange rates during the comparable prior period.

Acquisitions, divestitures and discontinuations: In order to present period-over-period organic revenues (non-GAAP) on a comparable basis, revenues associated with acquisitions, divestitures and discontinuations are adjusted to include only revenues from those businesses and assets owned during both periods. Accordingly, organic revenue growth (non-GAAP) excludes from the current period, all revenues attributable to each acquisition for twelve months subsequent to the day of acquisition, as there are no revenues from those businesses and assets included in the comparable prior period. Organic revenue growth (non-GAAP) excludes from the prior period (but not the current period), all revenues attributable to each divestiture and discontinuance during the twelve months prior to the day of divestiture or discontinuance, as there are no revenues from those businesses and assets included in the comparable current period.

The following table presents a reconciliation of GAAP revenues to organic revenues (non-GAAP) and presents organic revenue (Non-GAAP) and the year over year changes in organic revenue (Non-GAAP) for 2020 and 2019 by segment.

(in millions)

Year Ended December 31, 2020

Change in

Revenue

Changes in

Revenue

Organic

Organic Revenue

as

Exchange

as

Divestitures and

Revenue

Reported

Reported

Discontinuations

(Non-GAAP)

Acquisition

Year ended December 31, 2019

OrganicRates

Revenue (Non-GAAP)AmountPct.

Bausch + Lomb/International Salix

$

Ortho Dermatologics Diversified Products Total

  • 4,408 $ 1,904 553 1,162

42 - (3) -

$

- (13) - -

$

  • 4,450 $ 1,891 550 1,162

  • 4,739 $ 2,022 565 1,275

(19) - - (1)

$

  • 4,720 $ 2,022 565 1,274

  • (270) (6)%

  • (131) (6)%

  • (15) (3)%

  • (112) (9)%

    $

    8,027

    $

    39

    $

    (13) $

    8,053

    $

    8,601

    $

    (20)

    $

    8,581

    $

  • (528) (6)%

Bausch + Lomb/International Segment:

Bausch + Lomb/International Segment Revenue

The Bausch + Lomb/International segment has a diversified product line with no single product group representing 10% or more of its segment revenues. The Bausch + Lomb/International segment revenue was $4,408 million and $4,739 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively, a decrease of $331 million, or 7%. The decrease was primarily attributable to: (i) a decrease in volume of $334 million, as discussed below, (ii) the unfavorable effect of foreign currencies of $42 million, primarily in Latin America and (iii) the impact of divestitures and discontinuations of $19 million. These decreases were partially offset by an increase in net realized pricing of $64 million, primarily driven by our International Rx and Global Consumer businesses.

The volumes of our Bausch + Lomb/International segment were negatively impacted, primarily in Europe, Asia and the U.S., by social restrictions and other precautionary measures taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, as previously discussed. The postponement of certain surgical and elective medical procedures related to the COVID-19 pandemic, and associated declines in pre- and post-operative prescriptions, negatively impacted the volumes of our Global Ophthalmology and Global Surgical businesses. The reduction in the consumption of contact lenses worldwide due to limited social interactions and in some regions government recommended use of frames, negatively impacted the volumes of our Global Vision Care business. During our first quarter of 2020, certain customers engaged in "pantry-loading", which, along with stay-at-home orders, negatively impacted the volumes of our Global Consumer business for our second quarter of 2020. However, as governments began lifting social restrictions, the negative trend in the revenues of these businesses began to level off and stabilize prior to our third quarter of 2020 and continued in the fourth quarter of 2020. Therefore, our revenues for the year 2020 were most impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic in our second quarter of 2020. Although we experienced additional COVID-19 pandemic related declines in year-over-year revenues in certain geographies during our third and fourth quarters of 2020, total Bausch + Lomb/International segment revenues for the three months ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were $1,242 million and $1,238 million, respectively, an increase of $4 million. This increase of less than 1% represents a continuing improving trend over the decreases in our year-over-year revenues for the three month periods ended June 30, 2020 and September 30, 2020 of 27% and 1%, respectively, and suggests that a recovery is underway. Presuming the increased availability of effective vaccines,and any resurgence of the COVID-19 virus and variant strains thereof or reenactment of social restrictions are not significant, we anticipate that our affected businesses could possibly return to pre-pandemic levels in 2021.

Bausch + Lomb/International Segment Profit

The Bausch + Lomb/International segment profit was $1,159 million and $1,332 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively, a decrease of $173 million, or 13%. The decrease was primarily driven by the decrease in contribution as a result of social restrictions and other precautionary measures taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, as previously discussed, partially offset by lower SG&A expenses.

Salix Segment:

Salix Segment Revenue

The Salix segment includes the Xifaxan® product line, which accounted for approximately 78% and 72% of the Salix segment revenues and approximately 18% and 17% of the Company's revenues for 2020 and 2019, respectively. No other single product group represents 10% or more of the Salix segment revenues. The Salix segment revenue was $1,904 million and $2,022 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively, a decrease of $118 million, or 6%. The decrease includes: (i) a decrease in net realized pricing of $96 million, primarily attributable to higher sales deductions for Glumetza® SLX, partially offset by higher gross selling prices for Xifaxan®, and (ii) a decrease in volume of $35 million primarily attributable to the decrease in demand for Apriso® due to LOE. The decrease in revenue was partially offset by sales of our Trulance® product, which we added to our portfolio in March 2019 as part of the acquisition of certain assets of Synergy, of $13 million.

Certain branded pharmaceutical products within our Salix segment were negatively impacted by social restrictions and other precautionary measures taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, as previously discussed. Although we experienced COVID-19 pandemic related declines in year-over-year revenues in 2020, Salix segment revenues for the three months ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were $527 million and $517 million, respectively, an increase of $10 million. This increase of 2% represents a continuing improving trend over the decreases in our year-over-year revenues for the three month periods ended June 30, 2020 and September 30, 2020 of 21% and 10%, respectively, and suggests that a recovery is underway. Presuming the increased availability of effective vaccines, and any resurgence of the COVID-19 virus and variant strains thereof or reenactment of social restrictions are not significant, we anticipate that our affected Salix businesses could possibly return to pre-pandemic levels in 2021.

Salix Segment Profit

The Salix segment profit was $1,338 million and $1,349 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively, a decrease of $11 million, or 1%. The decrease was primarily driven by the decrease in contribution as a result of the decrease in revenue, as previously discussed, partially offset by lower third-party royalty costs. The decrease in segment profit was partially offset by: (i) decreases in SG&A expenses due to: (a) COVID-19 pandemic related matters, as previously discussed, and (b) a charge associated with the termination of a certain co-promotional agreement during 2019 and (ii) the contribution from the sales of our Trulance® product, which we added to our portfolio in March 2019 as part of the acquisition of certain assets of Synergy.

Ortho Dermatologics Segment:

Ortho Dermatologics Segment Revenue

The Ortho Dermatologics segment includes the Thermage® and Jublia® product lines, which accounted for approximately 38% and 12% of the Ortho Dermatologics segment revenues for 2020, respectively. No other single product group represents 10% or more of the Ortho Dermatologics segment revenues. The Ortho Dermatologics segment revenue was $553 million and $565 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively, a decrease of $12 million, or 2%. The decrease was primarily attributable to a decrease in net realized pricing of $26 million partially offset by: (i) an increase in volume of $11 million and (ii) the favorable effect of foreign currencies of $3 million. The decrease in average realized pricing was the result of higher sales deductions in our medical dermatology products. The increase in volume was primarily due to increased demand of Thermage FLX®, primarily in China, and was partially offset by the impact of generic competition as certain products, such as Elidel®, Zovirax® and Solodyn®, lost exclusivity.

Certain medical aesthetics, therapeutic products and branded pharmaceutical products within our Ortho Dermatologics segment were negatively impacted by social restrictions and other precautionary measures taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Although we experienced COVID-19 pandemic related declines in year-over-year revenues in 2020, Ortho Dermatologics segment revenues for the three months ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were $160 million and $158 million, respectively, an increase of $2 million. This increase of 1% represents a continuing improving trend over the decreases in our year-over-year revenues for the three month periods ended June 30, 2020 and September 30, 2020 of 5% and 2%, respectively, and suggests that a recovery is underway. Presuming the increased availability of effective vaccines, and any resurgence of the

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Bausch Health Companies Inc. published this content on 15 March 2021 and is solely responsible for the information contained therein. Distributed by Public, unedited and unaltered, on 18 March 2021 09:59:03 UTC.

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